anscultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition


Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Culture

Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Overview/Heritage

  • The term Jewish refers to a people, a culture, and a religion; it is not a race.
  • The religion is practiced along a wide continuum that ranges from liberal Reform to strict Orthodox.
  • Instances occur within the ultra-Orthodox communities when individuals cannot make decisions without consulting their rabbis.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Overview/Heritage

  • A child born from the union of a Jewish father and a non-Jewish mother is recognized as Jewish by those in the Reform movement but not by those in the Orthodox movement.
  • Over 6 million Jews live throughout the United States. The migration of Jews from Europe began to increase in the mid-1800s because of the fear of religious persecution.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Overview/Heritage

  • The greatest influx of Jews occurred between 1880 and 1920.
  • Many came from Russia and Eastern Europe after a wave of pogroms (religious persecutions.) Most families in America today are descendants of these eastern European and Russian immigrants and are referred to as Ashkenazi Jews.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Overview/Heritage

  • Sephardic Jews, on the other hand, are from Spain, Portugal, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and South and Central America.
  • A Sabra is a Jew who was born in Israel.
  • Falasha are black Jews from Ethiopia.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Overview Heritage

  • In general, this population is well educated. A high percentage has succeeded in professional vocations.
  • Throughout their history, Jews have placed a major emphasis on education and social justice through social action.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Communication

  • English is the primary language of Jewish Americans.
  • Although Hebrew is used for prayers, it is generally not used for conversation.
  • Many elderly Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated early in the 20th century or who are first-generation Americans speak Yiddish, a Judeo-German dialect.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Communication

  • Many Yiddish terms have worked their way into English: kvetch (someone who complains a lot); chutzpah (clever audacity); bagel (a circular roll of bread with a hole in the middle); tush, tushie, or tuchus (buttocks); ghetto (a restricted area where certain groups live); klutz (a clumsy person); shlep (drag or carry); kosher (legal or okay); and oy, oy vey (oh my), and veys mir (woe is me).

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Communication

  • Hebrew is read from right to left, and books are opened from the opposite side compared with English books.
  • As a way to cope/communicate, Jews frequently use humor, but jokes are considered to be insensitive when they reinforce mainstream stereotypes, such as implying that Jews are cheap or pampered (eg, Jewish American princess). Any jokes that refer to the Holocaust or concentration camps are also inappropriate.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Communication

  • Modesty especially among the Orthodox is seen in the Orthodox style of dress.
  • Jews are encouraged not to “show off” or constantly try to impress others.
  • Hasidic men are not permitted to touch a woman other than their wives. They often keep their hands in their pockets to avoid touch.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Communication

  • Because women are considered seductive, Hasidic men may not engage in idle talk with them nor look directly at their faces.
  • Non-Hasidic Jews may be much more informal and may use touch and short spatial distance when communicating.
  • Jewish time orientation is simultaneously to the past, the present, and the future.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company

Jewish Communication

  • The Jewish format for names follows the Western tradition. The given name comes first and is followed by the family surname. Only the given name is used with friends and in informal situations.
  • In more formal situations, the surname is preceded by the appropriate title of Mr., Miss, Ms., Mrs., or Dr.
  • In ultra-Orthodox circles, children are not referred to by their names until after the bris or brit milah (circumcision).

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • Jewish school-age children typically attend Hebrew school at least two afternoons a week after public school throughout the school year.
  • Children play an active role in most holiday celebrations and services.
  • Respecting and honoring one’s parents is one of the Ten Commandments.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • In Judaism, the age of majority is 13 years for a boy and 12 for a girl, at which age children are deemed capable of differentiating right from wrong and capable of committing themselves to performing the commandments. Recognition of adulthood occurs during a religious ceremony called a bar or bat mitzvah (son or daughter of the commandment).

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • The goal of the Orthodox family is to live their lives as prescribed by halakhah (Code of Jewish Law), which emphasizes maintaining health, promoting education, and helping others.
  • Ultra-observant women must physically separate themselves from all men during their menstrual periods and after for 7 days. No man may touch a woman or sit where she sat until she has been to the mikveh, a ritual bath, after her period is over.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • Older people receive respect, especially for the wisdom they have to share.
  • Honoring one’s parents is a lifelong endeavor and includes maintaining their dignity by feeding, clothing, and sheltering them, even if they suffer from senility.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • The Bible, as interpreted by the Orthodox, prohibits homosexual intercourse; it says nothing specifically about sex between lesbians.
  • Some of the objections to gay and lesbian lifestyles include the inability of these unions to fulfill the commandment of procreation and the possibility that acting on the recognition of one’s homosexuality could ruin a marriage.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Family Roles and Organization

  • The liberal movement within Judaism supports legal and social equality for lesbians and gays.
  • Jews who observe the Sabbath must have off Friday evening and Saturday. They may work on Sundays.
  • Judaism’s beliefs are congruent with the values of the dominant American society.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Biocultural Ecology

  • Skin coloring for Ashkenazi Jews ranges from fair skin and blonde hair to darker skin and brunette hair.
  • Sephardic Jews have slightly darker skin tones and hair coloring.
  • There are also Jewish groups throughout Africa who are black, most notably the Falasha from Ethiopia.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Biocultural Ecology

  • Genetic risk factors vary based on whether the family immigrated from Ashkenazi or Sephardic areas.
  • There is a greater incidence of some genetic disorders among Ashkenazi individuals.
  • Most of these disorders are autosomal-recessive, meaning that both parents carry the affected gene.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Biocultural Ecology

  • Common genetic, hereditary, and other health conditions of the Jewish population include Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher’s disease, Canavan’s disease, familial dysautonomia, torsion dystonia, Niemann-Pick disease, Bloom syndrome, Fanconi’s anemia, mucolipidosis IV, lactase deficiency, Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, kaposi sarcoma, Phenylketonuria, ataxia-telangiectasia, metachromatic leukodystrophy, myopia, polycythemia vera, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish High-Risk Health Behaviors

  • Any substance or act that harms the body is not allowed. This includes smoking, suicide, illegal medications, and permanent tattooing.
  • Most Jews are health-conscious and practice preventive health care with routine physical, dental, and vision screening.
  • This is also a well-immunized population.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • For Jews who follow the dietary laws, much attention is given to the slaughter, preparation, and consumption of food.
  • Perhaps the food identified as “Jewish” that receives the most attention is chicken soup, which has frequently been referred to as “Jewish penicillin.”

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

Common foods include:

  • Gefilte fish (ground freshwater fish molded into oblong balls and served cold with horseradish)
  • Challah (braided white bread)
  • Kugel (noodle pudding)
  • Blintzes (crepes filled with a sweet cottage cheese)
  • Chopped liver (served cold)
  • Hamentashen (a triangular pastry with different types of filling)
  • Lox (a cold smoked salmon) is served with cream cheese and salad vegetables on a bagel.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • Religious laws regarding permissible foods are referred to as kashrut.
  • The term kosher means “fit to eat.” Foods are divided into those that are considered kosher (permitted or clean) and those considered (forbidden or unclean).
  • A permitted animal may be rendered treyf if it is not slaughtered, cooked, or served properly. All blood is drained from the animal before eating it.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • Milk and meat may not be mixed together in cooking, serving, or eating.
  • To avoid mixing foods, utensils used to prepare foods and the plates used to serve them are separated, requiring two sets of dishes, pots, and utensils. One set is reserved for milk products and the other for meat.
  • Because glass is not absorbent, it can be used for either meat or milk products, although religious households still usually have two sets.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • Therefore, cheeseburgers, lasagna made with meat, and grated cheese on meatballs and spaghetti is unacceptable.
  • Milk cannot be used in coffee if served with a meat meal. Nondairy creamers can be used instead, as long as they do not contain sodium caseinate, which is derived from milk.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • Some foods are parve (neutral) and may be used with either dairy or meat dishes. These include fish, eggs, anything grown in the soil (vegetables, fruits, coffee, sugar, and spices), and chemically produced goods.
  • Mammals are considered clean if they meet the requirements for their slaughter and have split (cloven) hooves and chew their cud.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • The pig is an example of an animal that does not meet kosher criteria.
  • Although liberal Jews decide for themselves which dietary laws they will follow, many still avoid pork and pork products out of a sense of tradition and symbolism.
  • Poultry is acceptable as well as fish if it has both fins and scales.
  • Nothing that crawls on its belly is allowed, including shellfish, tortoises, and frogs.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

    • In religious homes, meat is prepared for cooking by soaking and salting it to drain all the blood from the flesh.
    • Broiling is acceptable, especially for liver, because it drains the blood.
    • One must always wash one’s hands before eating. Religious Jews wash their hands while reciting a prayer.

 

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • A U with a circle around it ( U ) is the seal of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America and is used on food products to indicate that they are kosher.
  • A circled K ( K ) and other symbols may also be found on packaging to indicate that a product is kosher.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • During the week of Passover, no bread or product with yeast may be eaten. Matzoh (unleavened bread) is eaten instead. Any product that is fermented or that can cause fermentation (souring) may not be eaten.
  • Rather than attend synagogue, the family conducts the service (seder) around the dinner table during the first two nights and incorporates dinner into a service that includes all participants and retells the story of Moses and the exodus from Egypt.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • The Jewish calendar has a number of fast days. The most observed is the holiest day of the year, Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).
  • Jews abstain from food and drink as they pray to God for forgiveness for the sins they have committed during the past year. They eat an early dinner on the evening the holiday begins and then fast until after sunset the following day.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Nutrition

  • Ill people, the elderly, the young, pregnant and nursing women, and the physically incapacitated are absolved from fasting and may need to be reminded of this exception to Jewish law.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

ClickerCheck

Religious laws regarding permissible foods are referred to as

Kashrut.

Halal.

Kosher.

Treyf.

 

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Correct Answer

Correct answer: A

The religious laws regarding permissible foods are referred to as kashrut.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • Couples who are unable to conceive should try all possible means to have children, including infertility counseling and interventions, including egg and sperm donation.
  • Orthodox opinion is virtually unanimous in prohibiting artificial insemination when the semen donor is not the woman’s husband.
  • When all natural attempts have been made, adoption may be pursued.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • Unless pregnancy jeopardizes the life or health of the mother, contraception is not looked on favorably among the ultra-Orthodox.
  • Condom use is supported, especially when unprotected sexual intercourse poses a medical risk to either spouse.
  • To the Orthodox, barrier techniques are not acceptable because they interfere with the full mobility of the sperm in its natural course.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • The birth control pill does not result in any permanent sterilization, nor does it prevent semen from traveling its normal route.
  • Sterilization implies permanence, and Orthodox Jews probably oppose this practice, unless the life of the mother is in danger.
  • Reform Judaism allows free choice.

 

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • The fetus is not considered a living soul or person until it has been born.
  • Birth is determined when the head or “greater part” is born. If the physical or mental health of a pregnant woman is endangered by the fetus, all branches of Judaism consider the fetus an aggressor and require an abortion.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • Random abortion is not permitted by the Orthodox branch because the fetus is part of the mother’s body and one must not do harm to one’s body.
  • Reform Judaism believes that a woman maintains control over her own body and that it is up to her whether to abort a fetus.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • A Hasidic husband may not touch his wife during labor and may choose not to attend the delivery because he is not permitted to view his wife’s genitals.
  • These behaviors should never be interpreted as insensitivity.
  • Pain medication during delivery is acceptable.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • For male infants, circumcision, which is both a medical procedure and a religious rite, is performed on the 8th day of life by a mohel, an individual trained in the circumcision procedure, asepsis, and the religious ceremony.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices

  • Although a rabbi is not necessary, it is also possible to have the procedure completed by a physician with a rabbi present to say the blessings.
  • Attending a brit milah is the only mitzvah for which religious Jews must violate the Sabbath so that the brit can be completed at the proper time.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Traditional Judaism believes in an afterlife where the soul continues to flourish, although many dispute this interpretation.
  • A dying person is considered a living person in all respects.
  • Active euthanasia is forbidden for religious Jews.
  • Passive euthanasia may be allowed depending on its interpretation.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Taking one’s own life is prohibited. To the ultra-religious, suicide removes all possibility of repentance.
  • The dying person should not be left alone.
  • Any Jew may ask God’s forgiveness for his or her sins; no confessor is needed.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Some Jews feel solace in saying the Sh’ma in Hebrew or English. This prayer confirms one’s belief in one God.
  • At the time of death, the nearest relative can gently close the eyes and mouth, and the face is covered with a sheet.
  • The body is treated with respect and revered for the function it once filled.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • For the ultra-Orthodox, after the body is wrapped, it is briefly placed on the floor with the feet pointing toward the door.
  • A candle may be placed near the head. However, this does not occur on the Sabbath or holy days.
  • Autopsy is usually not permitted among religious Jews because it results in desecration of the body.
  • The body is be interred whole. Allowing an autopsy might also delay the burial.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Autopsy is allowed if its results would save the life of another patient who is immediately at hand.
  • Many branches of Judaism currently allow an autopsy if a) it is required by law, b) the deceased person has willed it, or c) it saves the life of another, especially an offspring.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Cremation is prohibited because it unnaturally speeds the disposal of the dead body.
  • Embalming is prohibited because it preserves the dead. However, in circumstances when the funeral must be delayed, some embalming may be approved.
  • Cosmetic restoration for the funeral is discouraged.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Funerals and burials usually occur within 24 to 48 hours after the death.
  • The funeral service is directed at honoring the departed by only speaking well of him or her. It is not customary to have flowers either at the funeral or at the cemetery.
  • The casket should be made of wood with no ornamentation.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • The body may be wrapped only in a shroud to ensure that the body and casket decay at the same rate.
  • There is no wake or viewing.
  • The prayer said for the dead, kaddish, is usually not said alone.
  • After the funeral, mourners are welcomed at the home of the closest relative.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Outside the front door is water to wash one’s hands before entering, which is symbolic of cleansing the impurities associated with contact with the dead.
  • The water is not passed from person to person, just as it is hoped that the tragedy is not passed.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Shiva (Hebrew for “seven”) is the 7-day period that begins with the burial.
  • Shiva helps the surviving individuals face the actuality of the death of the loved one.
  • During this period when the mourners are “sitting shiva,” they do not work.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • In some homes, mirrors are covered to decrease the focus on one’s appearance. No activity is permitted to divert attention from thinking about the deceased. Evening and morning services may be conducted in the closest relative’s home.
  • Condolence calls and the giving of consolation are appropriate during this time.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Crying, anger, and talking about the deceased person’s life are acceptable.
  • A common sign of grief is the tearing of the garment that one is wearing before the funeral service.
  • In liberal congregations, a black ribbon with a tear in it is a symbolic representation of mourning.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Death Rituals

  • Within Orthodoxy, when a limb is amputated before death, the amputated limb and blood-soaked clothing are buried in the person’s future gravesite because the blood and limb were part of the person.
  • No mourning rites are required.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Jews consider only the Old Testament as their Bible.
  • Judaism is a monotheistic faith that believes in one God as the creator of the universe.
  • No physical qualities are attributed to God; making and praying to statues or graven images are forbidden.
  • The spiritual leader is the rabbi (teacher). He (or she, in liberal branches) is the interpreter of Jewish law. All Jews pray directly to God. They do not need the rabbi to intercede, to hear confession, or to grant atonement

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • The practice of Judaism spans a wide spectrum.
  • Although there is only one religion, there are three main branches or denominations of Judaism.
  • The Orthodox are the most traditional. They adhere most strictly to the halakhah of traditional Judaism and try to follow as many of the laws as possible while fitting into American society.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • The Orthodox observe the Sabbath by attending the synagogue on Friday evening and Saturday morning and by abstaining from work, spending money, and driving on the Sabbath.
  • Orthodox Jews observe the Jewish dietary laws; men wear a yarmulke or kippah (head coverings) at all times in reverence to God. Women wear long sleeves and modest dress.
  • In many Orthodox synagogues, the services are primarily in Hebrew, and men and women sit separately.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Ultra-Orthodox men wear a special garment under their shirts year-round.
  • A mezuzah is a small container with scripture inside. Jewish homes have a mezuzah on the doorpost of the house. Some Jews wear a mezuzah as a necklace.
  • Other religious symbols include the Star of David, a six-pointed star that has been a symbol of the Jewish community, and the menorah (candelabrum.)

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Whereas Conservative Jews observe most of the halakhah, they do make concessions to modern society.
  • Many drive to the synagogue on the Sabbath, and men and women sit together. Many keep a kosher home, but they may or may not follow all of the dietary laws outside the home.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • For conservative Jews, women are ordained as rabbis and are counted in a minyan, the minimum number of 10 that is required for prayer.
  • While a yarmulke is required in the synagogue, it is optional outside of that environment.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • The liberal or progressive movement is called Reform. Reform Jews claim that post-biblical law was only for the people of that time and that only the moral laws of the Torah are binding.
  • They may or may not follow the Jewish dietary laws, but they may have specific unacceptable foods (for example, pork), which they abstain from eating.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Of the many small groups of ultra-Orthodox fundamentalists, the Hasidic (or Chasidic) Jews are perhaps the most recognizable.
  • They usually live, work, and study within a segregated area. They are usually easy to identify by their full beards, uncut hair around the ears (pais), black hats or fur streimels, dark clothing, and no exposed extremities.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • A relatively new denomination, Reconstructionism, is a mosaic of the three main branches.
  • Reconstructionists view Judaism as an evolving religion of the Jewish people and seek to adapt Jewish beliefs and practices to the needs of the contemporary world.
  • The Jewish house of prayer is called a synagogue, temple, or shul.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Orthodox Jews pray three times a day: morning, late afternoon, and evening. They wash their hands and say a prayer on awakening in the morning and before meals.
  • The Sabbath begins 18 minutes before sunset on Friday. During this time, religious Jews do no manner of work, including answering the telephone, operating any electrical appliance, driving, or operating a call bell from a hospital bed.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Spirituality

  • Orthodox client’s condition is not life-threatening, medical and surgical procedures should not be performed on the Sabbath or holy days.
  • A gravely ill person and the work of those who need to save him or her are exempted from following the commandments regarding the Sabbath.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • All denominations recognize that religious requirements may be laid aside if a life is at stake or if an individual has a life-threatening illness.
  • In ultra-Orthodox denominations of Judaism, taking medication on the Sabbath that is not necessary to preserve life may be viewed as “work” and is unacceptable.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • The verbalization of pain is acceptable and common. Individuals want to know the reason for the pain, which they consider just as important as obtaining relief from pain.
  • The sick role for Jews is highly individualized and may vary among individuals according to the severity of symptoms.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • Judaism opposes discrimination against people with physical, mental, and developmental conditions.
  • The maintenance of one’s mental health is considered just as important as the maintenance of one’s physical health.
  • Mental incapacity has always been recognized as grounds for exemption from all obligations under Jewish law.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • Jewish law considers organ transplants from four perspectives: those of the recipient, the living donor, the cadaver donor, and the dying donor.
  • Because life is sacred, if the recipient’s life can be prolonged without considerable risk, then transplant is ordained.
  • For a living donor to be approved, the risk to the life of the donor must be considered.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • Conservative and Reform Judaism approve using the flat EEG as the determination of death so that organs, such as the heart, can be viable for transplant.
  • Burial may be delayed if organ harvesting is the cause of the delay.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practices

  • The use of a cadaver for transplant is usually approved if it is to save a life.
  • No one may derive economic benefit from the corpse.
  • Use of skin for burns is also acceptable, although no agreement has been reached on the use of cadaver corneas.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Jewish Health-care Practitioners

  • Physicians are held in high regard. Although physicians must do everything in their power to prolong life, they are prohibited from initiating measures that prolong the act of dying.
  • The more traditional Orthodox prefer that care be delivered by a same-gender health-care provider.

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

ClickerCheck

Jewish people with the highest number of hereditary/genetic conditions are

Sephardic..

Copts.

Ashkenazi.

Falasha.

 

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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition

Correct Answer

Correct answer: C

The Ashkenazi Jewish population has the highest incidence of genetic/hereditary conditions.

 

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The post anscultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition appeared first on Infinite Essays.



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