The thread must be a minimum of 200-400 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.

TEXTBOOK: Bennett, B. T. (2018). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9781119237785.

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CARVER – Throughout the spectrum of critical infrastructure (CI) protection, risk assessment, and emergency response numerous essential acronyms have been developed, implemented, and evaluated (Bennett, 2018). Acronyms are abbreviated versions of a series of complex words or terms subsequently describing entire trains of thought in mere seconds. The CARVER assessment tool, for example, literally means Critically, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect, and Recognizability, and was developed during the Vietnam war by U.S. special forces to determine CI attack potential versus resource allocation (Bennett, 2018). CARVER continues in use today as a CI attack scale rating system, placing all CI in a 1-10 scoring system to best determine the most vulnerable asset (Bennett, 2018).

CPTED – Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design is considered by criminologists to be a preventive methodology to crime by creating an atmosphere less likely for crime to occur in, called the broken window theory by Sohn (2016). Sohn (2016), for instance, researched two Seattle, WA residential neighbors, attempting to determine which area had less crime and why, ultimately discovering that land use density combined with improved street connectivity was adversity, increasing crime. In reference to CPTED, a land planning commission, attempting to reduce crime, might limit outside access to a newly constructed neighborhood by preventing bus stops to be built nearby or large commercial warehouses connection access (Sohn, 2016).

SVA – Security Vulnerability Analysis is a systematic process to evaluate the chances an attack against a piece of CI would be successful and the relative consequences (Bennett, 2018). SVA is typically conducted toward the end of the identifying and categorizing CI process, potentially imitating what information, equipment, or assets could be harmed during an attack (Bennett, 2018). Beyond CI identification and prioritization, an SVA assists in the assessment process by examining security weaknesses, potential countermeasures, and financial justification for these measures (Bennett, 2018).

            A truly well-developed SVA invokes a multitude of controlling factors and is considered one of the most comprehensive and all-encompassing threat analysis processes in practice (Bennett, 2018). Bennett (2018) describes some of the basic questions that begin an SVA like “what security threat exists that could adversely impact the critical infrastructure, and how significant could the adverse effects of an attack be?” (Bennett, p. 238, 2018). The progression of SVA turns toward the proper timeframe to conduct the SVA, as one might be rather lengthy if time permits, investigating why the SVA is being broached, proactive or reactive threats. Eventually, the SVA cumulates a series of processes to create a strong risk assessment rating and emergency management technique, making it a useful resource for defending CI (Bennett, 2018).        

NIPP – National Infrastructure Protection Plan outlines and encourages how government, private, and community partners can work together to manage CI risk, security and build resiliency (Hemme, 2015). This important sector of protecting CI works toward effective interagency planning, management, and response effectiveness, seemingly cojoining all interested parties in the process (Hemme, 2015). Hemme (2015) describes the process as championed by the federal Department of Homeland Security to renew CI protection through the developing landscapes in America by focusing on mutual private/public access, integration, and assignment of responsibility.

CIKR – Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources applies to the specific roles, responsibilities, and operations designed to maintain a physical or virtual presence in protecting American assets (Bennett, 2018). This umbrella term was incorporated by federal Homeland Security professionals to incorporate planning for the majority of privately owned CI assets, which are typically managed outside government entities (Kenter & Goldsmith, 2021). Kenter & Goldsmith (2021) highlight the ability of CIKR to interact with local law enforcement by connecting the two toward the common goal of protecting CI like power stations, telecommunications, and public transportation. Ultimately the goal of CIKR is to build a partnership between private CI owners, and law enforcement, universally safeguarding assets from terrorists (Kenter & Goldsmith, 2021).

ALERRT – the Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training organization has developed a systematic process for local police to follow when arriving at an active shooter incident (Gordon, 2021). The process includes many key elements to stopping the killing and dying of innocents by prioritizing an officer’s initial actions upon arrival at the scene (Gordon, 2021). For example, ALERRT teaches the first arriving officer to intentionally place providing first aid for victims behind engaging the active shooter, effectively stopping more innocents from becoming victims before fully accessing people currently injured (Gordon, 2021). This is just one of many steps ALERRT has analytically prioritized to prevent additional loss of life during a mass shooting, an increasingly dangerous problem in America.

Christian Viewpoint – This gloomy but essential topic calls for some positive reinforcement regarding teamwork from God’s sacred texts, the Bible, “But if anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for members of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever” (English Standard Version, 2001/2016 1 Timothy 5:8).                                

References

Bennett, B. (2018). Understanding, Assessing and Responding to Terrorism. John Wiley & Sons, 

Inc. Hoboken, NJ. 

English Standard Version. (2016). Bible hub. Retrieved from https://biblehub.com Links to an external site.(Original

work published 2001).

Gordon, A. (2021). Texas Police Officers Perception of Needed School Safety Training to

Prevent Active Shootings. CTU Dissertations. 28772568. https://www.proquest.com/op review/f1e3f6b66e5115bee2f2dc2f74fe9cbe/1?pqorigsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=yLinks to an external site.

Hemme, K., (2015). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Maintenance is National Security. Journal 

of Strategic Security. 8(3). https://www.jstor.org/stable/26465242Links to an external site.

Kenter, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2021). Law Enforcement and the Protection of Critical

Infrastructures. The Role of Law Enforcement in Emergency Management and Homeland Security. 24. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-726220210000024002Links to an external site.

Sohn, D. (2016). Residential Crimes and Neighborhood Built Environment: Assessing the

Effectiveness of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Cities. 52.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2015.11.023

 
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