international crisis group
A. Concerning the Proposal:
□ please make the hypothesis a bit shorter
□ I was told by my instructor that some sources that are in the references are ‘not strong sources’; he said do not remove them, but add to them sources from BOTH of the following (please highlight or bold the new sources you added):
1) ICG (international crisis group – crisisweb.org)
2) MERIP (middle east research information project)
□ I need to submit a portfolio to my instructor to show him the progress of my paper. Thus I need the following:
1) 2to3 drafts of the paper (they could be messy and unorganized and have spelling mistakes; it is basically the drafts you are writing for the paper). I am not concerned to have the drafts before the deadline, I just need them uploaded at the end with the final draft.
2) Upload some sources used, or send me the links indicating the page numbers, or you could email them to me. I need to print some of the sources and include them in my work progress portfolio as hard copies.
3) Upload whatever you feel is important and related to the paper (like readings if you annotated them…etc.).
C. Concerning the Paper:
□ Please use the attached Proposal from Part A above (after you edit) to write the following paper.
□ The following should have the following sections and headings (label each section):
1) Title (include a creative title; the title should mention the duration of the war)
3) Chapter One: Introduction
4) Chapter Two: Literature Review(I need you to explain a model done by one of the writers from any of the sources)
5) Chapter Three:(I need you to create a diagram or a model and explain it)
Operationalization &Measurement of Variables
6) Chapter Four: Reporting &Analysis
7) Chapter Five: Summary &Conclusions
8) References& in-Text Citations (academic sources in the proposal or any more new sources)
1) The following paper should have 25 quality pages.
2) The following paper should be written in third person.
3) Don’t mention “this paragraph will discuss, or this portion will discuss” (only when really needed).
4) Avoid using several transitions “on the other hand…etc.; I am looking for quality more than quantity of words.
D. Binding Guide:
□ Below is a detailed guide for the (1) approximate length and (2) defines each section and (3) explainshow to write each section. When you find the word “sample sentences in bold”, this means that those are sample / examples on how to write each section:
Definition:Here are format examples of 2 common types of titles:
Question: Territorial or Religious Conflict: The Case of Kashmir?
Summary: Understanding Civil War: The Case of Syria
2. Abstract (approx. 200words) – What did we do in a nutshell?
Definition: The abstract is a short summary of the entire paper. It should include: goals and objectives, results, and conclusions. It is usually one of the last parts of the paper to be written.
Sample Sentences in bold:
This study examines the impact of crisis on political reforms in Kuwait during two periods: before and after the discovery of oil. Specifically, this paper focuses on studying the level of impact that crisis has on reforms referring back to the history of Kuwait, examining certain crisis patterns that transpired and how each crisis contributed to the development of the political system in Kuwait. The proposed two-staged model incorporates two independent variables: oil and the reaction of the Kuwaiti citizens. As stated, the study organizes a data collection presented in two stages; for this reason, the paper adopted a longitudinal approach. The method of analysis involves a content analysis to analyze the two stages in Kuwait focusing on the consistent patterns and the response of individuals. The model adopted was helped to answer the question, however, some improvements could be made in the future for example interviewing people that experienced the period prior to the oil era.
3. Introduction (approx. 750 words) – What are we studying?
Definition:The introduction also has three main purposes. First, it provides background and motivation for your topic (usually includes a review of current literature on the topic). Second, it describes the focus and purpose of the paper you are writing. Third, it gives an overview of what is contained in the paper’s various sections.
Sample Sentences in bold:
Thefirst paragraph here should define sports, the second should talk about development, the third should link them both (talking about theories). In the reaming paragraphs, try to imitate the following examples:
Based upon the review of past literature and upon theories of crisis and political reforms, it is hypothesized that there is a positive relationship between the crisis and reforms; the reform is the result of crisis. The tested question ‘under what condition do crisis impact political reforms’ is the main topic of this research paper. The model adopted from the literature explains that one should refer to history in order to: understand current politics, find patterns of crisis, understand how the studied cultural would respond to that certain crisis (Bayath, 2006).
The method of analysis employed by this paper involves a data collection adoption a longitudinal approach focusing on Kuwait within two important stages: prior to the discovery of oil and after the discovery of oil. The analysis will also explain the political developments in Kuwait and how each development was the cause of a certain crisis that transpired earlier. This research design aims to shed light on whether or not crisis have an impact on political reforms and to what extent.
Therefore, this research paper proceeds in the following order. Chapter Two provides an summary of the literature and clarifies upon the development of the hypothesis, ending with an explanation of the theoretical portion tested in this study. Chapter Three outlines the information used and the methodology adopted in studying the impact of crisis on political reforms. Next, Chapter Four discusses the findings of the data examination. Lastly, Chapter Five summarizes the study and lists some suggestions on how the paper and the adopted model could be improved for future studies.
4. Literature Review (approx. 1,900 words) – Why are we studying the issue in this way?
Definition:A literature review gives an overview of the field of inquiry relevant to your paper: what has already been said on the topic, who the key writers are, what the prevailing theories and hypotheses are, what questions are being asked, and what methodologies and methods are appropriate and useful. A critical literature review shows how prevailing ideas fit into your own thesis, and how your thesis agrees or differs from them.
Sample Sentences in bold:
There is no agreed definition in the literature of International Relations on how to define “crisis and reforms”. Some studies define it as a war, others would define it as an economic crisis, and some define it as a revolution; in both ways, the idea “crisis” is a connotation for something negative such as a revolution (Kia, 2012). Several scholars have used various research tactics in order to support their claim and argument. On the other hand if a scholar is referring to it as a revolution…
There are also different models that are used to study crisis and reforms. The top two models that the literature review chapter belongs to Dr. Medhat Al- Adel and Dr. RawyaBayath; this paper adopts Dr. Bayath’s model to study crisis and reforms.Every scholar tries to justify depending on his/her own ideology. Their research and work prove that it is difficult to be bias because the researcher would list concrete evidence to support the argument. Throughout the history of mankind, there are various examples of crisis and political reforms and each author has a different perspective. Dr. RawyaBayath, the writer of the famous Egyptian television series “Nazli”, analyzes in her study King Farouq’s behavior and how this behavior was the reason that leads to a crisis for his removal. Kamal Qoura, however, an Egyptian scholar summarizes the era of the former Egyptian Presidents Jamal Abdulnasser…
Dr. RawyaBayath in “A Queen in Exile”, studies King Farouq’s childhood and how his behavior has led to his removal. Farouq’s father, Fouad the first, had only one son who was Farouq and several other daughters. His hope to have his only son to be the next King of Egypt made him take special care of Farouq by taking him…
Kamal Qoura, however, argues in his article “Nasser 54” that the revolution (crisis) to remove King Farouq and the rise of Abdulnasser had a great impact on Egypt’s political reforms. Qoura, 1980 measured many variables to test his hypothesis and he starts to describe Abdulnasser’s achievements indicating that in 195…
“Yes, Mubarak”, written by Professor Medhat Al- Adel, 2013 continues to support the idea that a crisis does have an impact on political reforms especially after January 25th, 2011. Al- Adel focused on the January 25 revolution studying it from different aspects. He first hypothesized that it might have some negative reforms on Egypt…
In “Khomeini versus Mohammed Shah”, Helen Morse gives an overview of the Iranian revolution. There was antagonism against Mohammad Reza Shah, and how he used the secret police and furtive methods to regulate Iran. He used not care about the public and spends money on himself and his luxury. A dominant Shiaat antagonism went against the Shah, and Iran was about to experience a civil war. Ayatollah Khomeini led the opposition movement for the removal of the Shah who was…
Figure 1 explains the patterns and a brief description of each ruler’s period, and what resulted after the revolution. The model shows that the Egyptians are seeking for a real development (Sameer, 2014). In the literature review of “crisis and reforms”, some scholars would sometimes refer to history to find consistent patterns and correlation…This background information that the reader adopts from reviewing the past would enable the reader to understand the politics that lead to the crisis that transpired, the reasons, the citizen’s reaction, and if it continues to happen regularly. In other words, to study “under what condition do crisis impact political reforms,” some scholars suggest implicitly that the researcher has to refer back to history to understand the politics of that nation and how this nation will respond after a crisis to reform. Chapter Three will lead you to the adopted model that will explain the connection between crisis and reforms.
5. Methods/Procedure (approx. 1,800 words) – (Operationalization& Measurement of Variables / Data Acquisition)
Definition:This section describes what you did, how you did it, gives strategies, sample calculations, diagrams and circuits, and descriptions of equipment. The goal here is to give the reader sufficient inforamation to be able to repeat your work if desired. (Of course some “standard techniques” can be simply referenced).
Sample Sentences in bold:
The study organizes data collection in the time ranges between the Kuwaiti politics before oil (1750s – 1920s) and after oil (1930s – 2005) covering the political changes and the impact of the crisis on political reforms and focusing on consistent patterns of reforms that result subsequently after a political crisis. The transformation in Kuwait’s political history did not happen abruptly, the examined factors will explain. The reason is three-fold: The 1921 Council resulted after the Jahra War in 1920, the 1938 Council resulted after the merchant’s pearl crisis, the 1963 Council resulted after AbdulkareemQassim’s threat to Kuwait in 1961, and the 1992 Council resulted after the Gulf War in 1990. To understand the politics of Kuwait, one should research Kuwait’s history (J. Richmond, 1980). For this reason, the paper adopted a longitudinal approach for data collection; the data is both qualitative and quantitative.
The councils will be studied by counting how many members does it include, from which part of the society are those members (tribal, Islamists, Nationalists…etc.), and the nature of their demands. The nature of a crisis before every council will be used as a reason to study what political impact the crisis had for the formation of each council, and the reasons that lead to each crisis will also be taken into consideration by studying the history prior to the crisis. The nature of the ruler, political regime, and the country’s economic status at that period will also be studied. All of those factors will contribute on how the country will respond to a certain crisis and to what extent it needs to reform. On the other hand, testing the economic status of the ruler and the merchants is also necessary before and after the oil time, and what impact does the discovery of oil plays on the country’s economic and social status nationally and internationally.
(Figure 2) xxximagexxx
Kuwait politically developed before and after oil; the ruling family, merchants, mariners, and Bedouin were all associated. The association among these groups prior to the oil’s prosperity is essential to understand Kuwait’s society and politics – Figure 2 shows the association. The discovery of oil financed the separation between the ruler and the merchants (Crystal, 1995). The independent variables for this research are the skills of labor, culture of the society, religion, political affairs, economic status of individuals, and new forms of businesses that resulted after the crisis. Those variables will be studied slightly just like a matter to relate how the society will respond to a crisis; however the main focus of study will be on the nature of crisis and reform. Additionally, some connections shall be made between political developments in Kuwait and the integration with different sectors like businesses or if the political regime has an influence over human behavior in times of crisis and reforms (J. Richmond, 1980). Some topics that support the dependent variable will be referred to during the study, for example, the need for a culture to change in association with political reforms (from tribal to democratic), or the politics of the oil industry that shapes political reforms, and finally the association with the rise of the oil industry that leads to the changing of the governing system. The paper adopts a content analysis to study two stages: Kuwait before and after the discovery of oil. The content approach is based on Dr. Bayath’s approach.
6. Analysis (approx. 1,900 words) – (Reporting & Analysis)
Definition:This section is where you prove your point with the data. Give graphs and tables of costs, profits, whatever your data is. Also give some description or guide to help the reader recognize your important points.
Sample Sentences in bold:
The findings of the data analysis are summarized briefly in the following examination of the association between the ruler’s and the merchants, the historical background section that summarizes the nature of Kuwait prior to each crisis, the people’s (group) response to the political reform, and the new findings after examining all of the factors. The consistent patterns of Kuwait’s politics through history will justify Kuwait’s current politics and explain ‘to what extent does crisis impact political reforms’. Studying the historical backgrounds and searching for consistent patterns to explain the association between crisis and reforms is the methodology that was adopted from the literature and the findings are discussed in this chapter.
Before the discovery of oil in Kuwait, merchants and rulers were equally powerful. Merchants can’t survive without rulers and rulers can’t survive without the merchants. In the past their used to be taxes on water, wood, fishing, imports…etc. So the merchants made financial contributions (taxes and donations) in return for the ruler’s protection…
7. Conclusions/Discussion (approx. 450 words) – (Summary & Conclusions)
Definition:Here you state what your learned or proved. What are the “take home messages” or major accomplishments of this work? You may also describe interesting observations, new questions, and future work here.
Sample Sentences in bold:
In conclusion, the purpose of this paper was to measure the conditions on which crisis impact political reforms focusing on the relationship between crisis and reforms. The focus was on understanding the factors that lead a country or citizens to ask for a reform. The literature reviews several models on how experts study such case providing a historical background of the country, studying the culture, finding consistent patterns of crisis and buy measuring certain factors within that society, one would be able to know the impact of crisis and political reforms (Bayath, 2006).The proposed model treats crisis (war, revolution, economic crisis) as a variable prerequisite for having a reform. Demanding or requesting reform from a certain society differs from one culture to another due to multiple reasons. The ideal research design would have involved more variety of research methods in the analysis section such as interviews with certain important figures that have lived during the period of this study.
The results were adequate since they were able to explain and answer the question. In other words, the adopted model was successful in measuring all the variables since I found all the factors. Not only that but the model helped in discovering new findings as explained in the analysis section; which were that the Kuwaiti society’s response to each crisis indicate their wisdom and maturity in dealing with reforms. The Kuwaiti society wanted their role to be indispensible with regards to political affairs. For more effective analysis, it would be necessary to interview people who have lived in the period prior to oil to understand their perspective and find some implicit information, if any, that was not exposed in the topic. But due to time constraints, the findings were limited to what is provided in this paper. Therefore, a future replication of this study with different types of units of analysis will add further insight and help justify some of the tested variables.
Definition:A list of the references you used in the work & writing the paper.
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