3 peer replies due in 2 hours 30 minutes | psy331 | Ashford University

 Peer Replies: Read several of your classmates’ posts and respond to at least two of your classmates, and at least one of your classmates’ responses to your initial post.

 At least one of your replies should be to a student that addressed a different theory/ideology than you did. Did you agree with their summation? How do you think these two areas (constructivism and humanism) could potentially work together to increase effective learning opportunities for self, and others? Share how you might approach life (and learning) if you were a promoter of humanism (human transformation). 

Marques’s Post:

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Constructivists suggest that a person’s reality is unique from others and thus, effects what, how, and how effective knowledge is acquired. This is suggested to be affected by numerous variables such as culture, past experiences, and past knowledge. This is true! Everyone does not eat the same food, speak the same language or understands the same culture. My reality is based from the good morals and values I was raised with. I am happy about life because I know I have the power to change my world.

  • What does logical positivism suggest to us about constructivist-based theories? Do you agree or disagree? I disagree with logical positivism because it suggest that problems should be answered through research. I agree that discovering information has to come from one’s personal experiences.
  • How do exogenous constructivism, endogenous constructivism, and dialectical constructivism differ and why does it matter? They matter because they are a part of the knowledge construction process based on realities of the environment we experience (Rosser 2017).
  • How does situated cognition (discussed in Week 3) support the suggestions made by constructivism? In my opinion, it supports it because of the importance it puts on the impact of culture and history when it comes to learning.
  • Discuss a personal experience where you feel constructivism ideologies explained either the effectiveness of, or the non-effectiveness of, the learning experience.

In the text it states, “Constructivist-based theories suggest that one’s environment plays a role in meaningful learning” (Rosser 2017). A personal experience I learned was learning how to change a flat tire. I grew up in an environment that taught me only the strong survive in this world. For example, you had to be knowledgeable about various skills and techniques in order to maintain your life. I agree with constructivist theories because I was an active participant in my knowledge construction. I was available and willing to receive the knowledge I was being taught. I consider this learning problem based learning because learning how to change a tire was considered problem solving for me. I was 8 or 9 years old. I had never changed a car tire before but I was forced to learn by example. This can also be categorized as self-directed learning.

  • What implications in learning effectiveness might exist if construction of individualized knowledge is negated?

You cannot deny the truth of individualized knowledge. In my opinion, you can call it hands on learning. Effective learning cannot be achieved without individualized knowledge. For example, if you want to learn how to be good at cooking you have to put your hands in the mix and understand the texture of the food you want to learn how to cook.


Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of learning: An exploration. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Tatyana’s Post:


Do you feel that learning, from the approach of a human’s potential, rather than from a purely content driven (you need to know this) perspective, is a viable way to approach investigating “how we learn”? Why or why not?

I think the way that we learn from an human potential is important versus just learning from content. This way we learn at our own given time and at our own levels. If we learn from just the content driven perspective, we are not learning what we need to know at the right time for us personally. With this perspective we are just going with the flow of things an not necessarily obtaining the knowledge needed, the knowledge then is not stored but rather but to the side until we obtain what we need to learn on our time.  Because not everyone takes in knowledge the same way it might take others longer to grasp what is being taught versus the average person.

Waldorf Education posits that it is a school founded on humanism ideologies. After reading the content, do you agree with their position? Would this type of education work with adults (yourself)?

After reading the content I think that Waldorf had agenda of what he wanted for his idea of education. As I am reading it is stated that “However, this method of learning, often considered too loose and playful (Cook, 2014), also has its controversial aspects (Dewey, 2012; Staudenmaier, 2012). Concerns about the prevalence of bullying, low cultural-diversity inclusion (Cook, 2014), and a historically religious foundation all spark questions about the intentions of this method of education” (Rosser-Major, 2017) This can worry some people who are going to this school or even the parents that are sending their children to the school. His ways were developed only on his philosophy, with his ways of education I would say that it would be hard for adults like me to believe in it or follow it from only one person’s perception and beliefs. His studies are more for smaller children or someone who wants to get in touch with their body, soul, and spirit. His ways of learning have no discipline for adults and for the real world.

Describe a personal example of experiential learning that you have experienced.

My example would have to be when I learn how to take care of the elderly. This was more of a hands-on experience because videos did not serve the real task justice. The videos made it seem like a piece of cake when actually it is hard work. Caring for the elderly takes a great deal of time and patience. From the constant need for attention or for tasks to be handled or from the ones who aren’t in their right mind who require more attention because they sometimes like to get aggressive.

How can the areas of motivation and needs potentially increase effective learning, as suggested by humanistic ideologies?

If you are motivated to do something, then you are more likely to do it instead of putting it off. Motivation is the biggest part of showing that you have the potential to do something. If you are motivated to learn you stand out and your work at times can show for it to. “self-determination theory (SDT), a theory of motivation that suggests that three variables are crucial to support motivation: autonomy, competence, and belonging. The article also distinguishes between motivation that is aligned with self-goals (e.g., the desire to earn a degree) versus mandatory requirements.” (Rosser-Major,2017 6.4)

How do the variables of organismic integration theory (OIT) reflect the humanistic model?

“Organismic integration theory (OIT), was introduced to detail the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contextual factors that either promote or hinder internalization and integration of the regulation for these behaviors (Deci & Ryan, 1985). (Rosser-Major,2017 6.4) It explains the process of a person’s transformation to their self-regulated version. It is the process of showing motivation and self-determination.


Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of learning: An exploration. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

My post and the student who responded:


According to the researches I carried out, the logical positivism suggests to us that the constructivist based theories are ideological. According to logical positivism, the constructivist theories do not have solid findings obtained through controlled observations or experimentation. However, I agree with this due to the fact that human beings deter the meaning of different situations and therefore the logical positivisms has been able to put it in the right perspective (Chávez, 2019).

The endogenous constructivism put more emphasis on the nature of the learner’s knowledge. On the other hand, the exogenous constructivism differentiates the knowledge acquired can be used in different tasks and hence can be developed through the instructions given to people. Again, the dialectical constructivism is an approach which is based on theory of constructive operators to which it is presented. According to this theory, the human psychological functioning is brought about by the dynamic syntheses of different schemes. The theories manners in that they explain the manner in which people acquire their knowledge (Mukhalalati, 2019).

According to the situated cognition makes it clear that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that the knowledge acquired by people is situated in activities which are related to social and the cultural context. This relates to the constructivism suggestions in that it has made it clear that the knowledge acquired by people cannot be separated from them.

The personal experience where I feel constructivism ideologies explained effectiveness of the learning experience is whereby different jobs are given based on the experience of a person. I consider the problem based learning because it ensures that the social problems are solved accordingly (Norton, 2019).

If construction of individualized knowledge is negated, the learning process will lack realistic context. However, this will make it hard for the learners to use experience and constructive process of knowledge.


Chávez, T. A., Givens, J., Lemberger-Truelove, M. E., Lemberger-Truelove, T., & Palacios, A. F. (2019). Dialogical meaning and justice for constructivist and existential psychologies. Journal of Constructivist Psychology32(2), 138-147.

Mukhalalati, B. A., & Taylor, A. (2019). Adult Learning Theories in Context: A Quick Guide for Healthcare Professional Educators. Journal of medical education and curricular development6, 2382120519840332.

Norton, A. L., & Tan, T. X. (2019). The relationship between licensed mental health counselors’ political ideology and counseling theory preference. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry89(1), 86.

Kathryn response to my post:


      I agree that constructivism can be ideological and is based on an individual’s ability to learn through how they perceive the outside world and how they connect that information with already existing schemas and perceptions.  Logical positivism does posit that what is meaningful should be verifiable unlike constructivism in general (Rosser-Majors, 2017). I can agree with your view that people can see and perceive things and situations differently.  Endogenous and exogenous constructivism can be seen as the external and internal development of knowledge.  I can see how you explained dialectical constructivism.  It is interesting how all three theories of constructivism pertain to different sources for learning.  There is the internal source, the external source, and the social source.  I do like how you mentioned that the psychological functioning pertains to the combination of different schemata in dialectical constructivism.  When compared to humanism, even with all the different sources of learning, there is still the progression of knowledge which can elect in self-actualization.  What do you think?  I can agree that the knowledge they have obtained through situated cognition cannot be separated from them, but it is interesting how the information can also be rendered useless if it is not used in their respective social and cultural contexts.  I think it compliments humanism by supporting the fact that some learning can be effective in experiential and out of school ways.  I enjoyed reading your post, good job!

Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of learning: An exploration. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

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