3g Wireless Networks to 4g Networks

Introduction

3G is the generic abbreviation for 3rd generation. It is the wireless technology that initially enabled Internet browsing over wireless networks. An example of 3G technologies is EV-DO. 4G is the generic abbreviation for 4th generation. It is the wireless technology that was designed to optimize data over wireless networks, improving the speed and efficiency of data delivery. LTE is one of the technologies that can be used to build a 4G network. This research will compare contrast 3G wireless networks to 4G networks.

Compare and contrast 3G wireless networks to 4G networks in terms of

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3G Wide Brand Wireless Network is used with which the clarity increases and gives the perfection as like that of a real conversation. The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching. Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching. It is a highly sophisticated form of communication that has come up in the last decade. In addition to verbal communication it includes data services, access to television/video, categorizing it into triple play service. 3G operates at a range of 2100MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20MHz. High speed internet service, video chatting are the assets of 3G.

With the help of 3G, we can access many new services such as GLOBAL ROAMING. Another thing to be noted in case of 3G is that Wide Band Voice Channel that is by this the world has been contracted to a little village because a person can contact with other person located in any part of the world and can even send messages too. Then the point to be noted is that 3G gives clarity of voice as well can talk with out any disturbance. Not only these but also have entertainments such as Fast Communication, Internet, Mobile T.V, Video Conferencing, Video Calls, Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS), 3D gaming, Multi-Gaming etc are also available with 3G phones.

The Internet speed of 4G mobile services is 100MBPS (21 MB per second), when compared to the low speed of 21MBPS in 3G mobiles. 4G promise a downloading speed of 100Mbps and are yet to shower its wonders on. Then with the case of Fourth Generation that is 4G in addition to that of the services of 3G some additional features such as Multi-Media Newspapers, also to watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an ordinary T.V. In addition, we can send Data much faster than that of the previous generations.

The convenience of a faster Internet browsing is the main benefit of 4G when compared to 3G mobiles. In 4G mobiles, videos and other things can be downloaded at a speed that is four times as greater. Nowadays, many wireless carriers use different technologies that they call “4G”. There is Verizon has LTE, Sprint has WiMax, T-Mobile and AT&T have HSPA+, although AT&T plans to switch to LTE at some point this summeLTE, WiMax and HSPA+ are very different networks. In a recent past, HSPA+ was still considered as a 3.5G network. Somewhere along the way, carriers using it felt the pressure from competitors using the term “4G”, and decided to promote HSPA+ to “4G” status. That was an easy upgrade.

WiMax was the first network to be called “4G” in the USA. When it was introduced it was clearly faster, with downloads speeds of 5Mbps.

Forthcoming 4G networks will enable users to freely roam across different communication systems. This implies that formerly independent wireless and wired technologies will be integrated to deliver transparent access to a plethora of mobile services and applications. This will also involve changes in the user’s experience mainly derived from (1) mobility across heterogeneous technologies, (2) drastic changes in the underlying link conditions, and (3) continuous adaptation of applications, e.g. flexible coding schemes. This chapter presents a detailed study of these so far unknown phenomena arising in the context of 4G networks.

Current instrumental models employed to estimate user perception, such as PESQ (ITU-T Rec. P.862, 2001) for predicting the quality of transmitted speech, were designed to measure conditions that are common in today’s wireless and wired systems. However, it is expected that new conditions encountered in 4G networks are not going to be accurately handled by today’s models. Thus, they need to be adjusted, or new models should be proposed in order to predict the perceptual influence of new phenomena such as the three aspects aforementioned. The authors undertook this task and designed a novel methodology and experimental setup to measure user perception in future 4G networks.

Distinguish between the 4G LTE, 4G WiMax, and 4G WiBro networks

The introduction of 4G networks has given us a variety of network choices: 4G LTE, 4G WiMax, and 4G WiBro. The 4G LTE network stands for 4G Long Term Evolution. This is the 4G technology used by Verizon Wireless. It supports data rate exchanges at speeds of 100 Mbps for downloads and 50 Mbps for uploads. Users that are really taking advantage of the advancements seem happy with the 4G LTE services offered today, but there have been some reports of poor connectivity and sometimes no connectivity at all. Most of the problems are away from the metropolitan areas where there are fewer 4G cell sites. With time this will be resolved.

It is common knowledge that in order to access a 4G network a user must be equipped with a 4G network enabled device. Devices have some limits with compatibility of networks when going for 3G to 4G but the real issue is backward compatibility. There is backward compatibility of LTE-Advanced with LTE. This basically means that an LTE terminal should be able to work in an LTE-Advanced Network and the same in reverse. This is because LTE was designed to be backward compatible with GSM and HSPA. Because of this design, if a piece of mobile equipment travels beyond the range of an LTE network, it can fall back on a 3G network if it has the required radio technologies.

As of April 19th, 2012 Verizon’s 4G LTE network coverage maps showed their service covered two-thirds of the U.S Population. This coverage provides service to 230 markets in the United States with expectations of that coverage increasing to 400 markets and 260 million people by the end of 2012. With benefits like security, customer address control, enhanced customer experience and services for diverse uses it will no doubt reach its projected goals.

The 4G WiMax network stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and is a different standard (802.16). This technology is also the current standard of wireless broadband devices in the United States. Sprint uses this technology for its 4G network. This type of 4G network was designed to provide broadband wireless access in on open Internet Architecture. Its cost to performance ratio exceeds all other technology and for that reason has already brought access to millions of users. Most data exchange rates show this technology to have a data rate of 70 Mbps. Reports have shown Fixed WiMax can provide speeds of up to 75 Mbps and Mobile WiMax offering speeds of up to 30 Mbps. When WiMax standard of 802.16d (fixed WiMax) was upgraded to 802.16e (Mobile WiMax) it was made to be backwards compatible with its previous version. Like LTE, WiMax is also backward compatible with 3G technologies. The Service availability for WiMax is limited in that it only allows so many users on the standard and will cut off any additional users trying to use the connection. For non-line of sight the network can reach up to 25 – 30 square miles, but for line of site between the transmission point and the receiving antenna, the range increases to 2,800 square miles. This Wireless Metropolitan Area Network can offer voice and data services without the high expense of cable or the limitations DSL has with distance.

The WiBro 4G network technology stands for Wireless Broadband. This is offered as an alternative to WiMax. It is a radio service for broadband, mobile access designed in Korea for the purpose of maintaining connectivity on the go. There are similarities between WiBro and WiMax in that the transmission speeds for both are same. However, WiBro has the ability to mark out a receiver that is stirring from one location to another location at speeds of up to 74 miles per hour. WiMax avoids this because it requires a stationary antenna for receiving the signal. The rate of exchange has data rates of 30 – 50 Mbps.

Identify why the competition between the 4G LTE carriers has been so fierce and describe

benefits of this competition to the subscribers.

One of the driving factors causing competition between carriers is the customers increase in choices but there are several other factors that are causing more interest in mobile technology today that is also driving such fierce competition. One of those factors is the availability of mobile broadband speeds that are directly competing with fixed line access technologies. If an individual can be on the move and have the same level of connection speed as they do at their home or office, their productivity levels increase dramatically. Another big factor are the businesses with remote branch offices that want to adopt a cellular enabled business plan that adopt cellular-enabled business gateways as either primary or back up WAN connections.

One of the many other factors causing this competition is governments of undeveloped countries wanting to take advantage of global services by using the technology to increase telephone access to rural areas unable to be served by wired telephone infrastructures. The ability to offer 4G LTE network technology has taken the competition to a whole new level with accompanying benefits for the user. Prices are being driven down by having more than one carrier offer the service. Data plans have more competitive pricing and the desire to be the order winner is causing carrier to make improvements to their systems daily. The race to increase coverage areas is driving the competition along and spreading the benefits to each new market it reaches.

In January 2012, Verizon stated that 4G LTE is available in 190 cities covering 200 million American subscribers. According to AT&T’s Website, they had plans for covering 20 million Americans in 15 markets by end of 2011. Conclude why Verizon is able to cover more markets than AT&T. Verizon was the first carrier in the United States to offer a 4G LTE network. This gave them a full year’s competitive advantage to develop their coverage areas. AT&T just launched their network in September of last year and is trying to catch up. Verizon achieved this lead partly by offering unlimited service plans and popular data-equipped handsets. Verizon also obtained another 17 million people in their customer base by delivering wholesale access through third party resellers.

Conclusion

One only has to sit and watch television for a brief amount of time and he/she will see the advances in technology. Commercials for smart-phones abound and the technology accompanying them is showing the world the capabilities of mobile technology. Advancements from 3G wireless networks to 4G networks are just the next step in mobile technologies evolutionary process. I can’t wait to see what is next.

 

 

 
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