Clark, M. A., Springmann, M., Hill, J., & Tilman, D. (2019). Multiple health and environmental impacts of foods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(46), 23357-23362.

Food choices have significant impacts on environmental degradation and human health. Our food habits are changing in ways that harm both public health and the environment. An extra serving of fifteen meals a day is connected with five adult health outcomes and 5 characteristics of agriculturally induced environmental deterioration. While the health outcomes of various diets vary widely, we find that foods that reduce illness risk for one health outcome frequently reduce disease risk for other health outcomes as well. Foods having reduced environmental effects on one dimension likely to have lower effects on others. Aside from fish, all meals linked with better health (whole grain cereals) have lesser environmental implications than highly processed foods and red meats. This article also contains tables that are vital in ensuring that the concept of processed foods and its negative impact on the environment and human health. This source will be significance to addressing the topic on the association of negative health outcomes and processed foods.

Dicken, Samuel J., and Rachel L. Batterham. “The Role of Diet Quality in Mediating the Association between Ultra-Processed Food Intake, Obesity and Health-Related Outcomes: A Review of Prospective Cohort Studies.” Nutrients 14.1 (2021): 23.

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This article suggests that the adverse impacts of ultra-processed food (UPFs) are independent of dietary pattern or quality. This results to the questioning of the utility of reformulation to address obesity, and general negative health results of UPFs. Attention has been focused on dietary patterns and the influences diet has on health outcomes. This article focuses on the effects of ultra-processed food and considers these to be independent of dietary quality or pattern. The authors suggest this as a way to address the negative associations between these products’ nutritional profiles, and certain disease outcomes. Studies have shown that people who have consumption of ultra-processed food are at a higher risk for obesity and cardio-metabolic disease than those who do not consume any products marketed as “ultra-processed” or “junk foods”, regardless of dietary pattern, caloric intake, and other variables. This source contains figures and graphs that make it easy to understand the theory part of the article and hence retrieve most information from the source.

Godfray, H. Charles J., et al. “Meat consumption, health, and the environment.” Science 361.6399 (2018): eaam5324.

According to this article, as human population around the globe increase, meat consumption is also increasing every year. This rise has led to negative for water and land use and environmental change.  This is increasing the risk of chronic ill health. The high meat consumption is tied to the production of greenhouse gases (GHG), which in turn causes climate change. The authors think that the constant meat consumption is a burden on health and the environment because the increasing meat production has been heavily linked to climate change and land degradation. This article also suggests that there are small incentives for farmers to reduce their livestock production due to higher price of beef, pork, mutton, and chicken. The beef industry is one of the biggest contributors to GHG emissions in many countries around the world. The beef industry share contribution to greenhouse gas emissions has led many people to think about ways in which they could cut down on their beef consumption. This source offers credible information since the authors professionals in various fields from different universities. The source utilizes graphs to enhance good understanding of the information provided.

He, Ka, et al. “Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).” The American journal of clinical nutrition 93.6 (2011): 1328-1336.

According to this article, monosodium glutamate (MSG) is directly related to weight gain. This weight gain in humans tend to impact energy balance. This source aims to investigate the longitudinal association between incidence of overweight and MSG consumption in humans. This study used data from China Health and Nutritional Survey (CHNS) to look at the relationship between MSG consumption and incidence of overweight in Chinese adults. The CHNS was a cross-sectional survey that focuses on socioeconomic status, life-style, education, health conditions and behaviors. Data was collected during the period of 1992 to 2000 across 22 provinces. Individuals who were aged 20 or older and had information on MSG consumption were included in the analysis (n=5013) Randomly selected samples were used for each province, except those provinces that had already participated in the National Nutrition Survey (NNS). This survey looked at males aged 40 and older from 19 provinces between 1988 to 1994. The study concluded that MSG consumption was longitudinally, positively associated with overweight development among adults in Chinese. This source provides additional references that are vital in providing additional information relevant to my research study.

Juul, F., Martinez-Steele, E., Parekh, N., Monteiro, C. A., & Chang, V. W. (2018). Ultra-processed food consumption and excess weight among US adults. British Journal of Nutrition120(1), 90-100.

In America, ultra-processed consumable products account for fifty-eight percent of calorie consumption and eighty-nine percent of artificial sweeteners. Nonetheless, the link between ultra-processed meals and obesity pandemic has not been adequately studied in a United States population. The current study intends to investigate the association between ultra-processed meals and excessive weight gain in a national sample of United States adults. Processed foods or ultra-processed foods contain ingredients like added fats, oils, salt and sugars as well as chemical additives that have been produced by food manufacturers. The article concludes that there is a close relationship between excess weight in human and increased consumption of processed foods. It also states that this trend is mostly witnessed among women. The source contains additional references that are vital to offering more information about the relationship between processed consumable products and negative health outcomes. This source offers credible information since the authors are professionals in global public health from various universities.

Monteiro, Carlos A. “Nutrition and health. The issue is not food, nor nutrients, so much as processing.” Public health nutrition 12.5 (2009): 729-731.

This article discusses on the issue of food. Food is a necessity for humans. It plays a significant role in human lives by satisfying hunger and providing energy. In addition, food is said to be an important part of culture because it represents the identity of cultures. This is because “food is the essence of the culture; it’s not just wrapping.” For example, there are different types of regional cuisines from various regions around the world. It discusses about the association of human health and processed foods. It describes the prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption in the United States and Brazil. It also talks about minimally processed foods and its effects on human health. The article concludes that in order for people to enhance well-being and prevent various diseases, it is essential to minimize or even better avoid ultra-processed products. It is also necessary to avoid consuming a large variety of minimally processed foods that are included in people’s diets today. This source provides reliable information from credible authors.

Moubarac, J. C., Martins, A. P. B., Claro, R. M., Levy, R. B., Cannon, G., & Monteiro, C. A. (2013). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public health nutrition16(12), 2240-2248.

The article aims to examine the prevalence of ultra-processed foods in Canada and determine if they are associated with poor dietary quality. The article states that processed food is unhealthy and has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes. In Canada, more than 80% of the population consume one or more ultra-processed foods per day, which studies have shown can contribute to weight gain and prevent healthy dietary quality. The article concludes that the ultra-processed commodities ruled the Canadian nutrition in 2001.  These foods are generally all unhealthy for the public health. The association between processed food consumption and negative health outcomes is increasingly recognized by researchers. Processed foods are a staple in the daily diets of most people in Canada, the United States and other developed nations. According to the current research, any significant change in diet would involve substantially lowering the consumption of ultra-processed items and much larger consumption of meals and dishes created from minimally processed culinary components and processed foods. The article contains additional references that are also great sources to get information about the impacts of processed foods on the public health.

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