The response must be 250 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Textbook: Raines, S. (2020). Conflict Management for Managers: Resolving Workplace, Client, and Policy Disputes (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN: 9781538119938
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Conflict can influence not only the individual person but the organizational processes and outcomes as well. Conflict exists within various contexts as well as to different levels of analysis such as between groups. Interpersonal conflict is defined as “a dynamic process that occurs between individuals and/or groups who are in interdependent relationships and is more likely to occur when a variety of background situational and personal conditions exists” (Hartwick & Barki, 2004, pp. 4-5). A disagreement typically exists between parties on their separate views on values, needs, interests, opinions, or objectives (Hartwick & Barki, 2004). McClelland’s motivations revolve around both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Motivation is considered the key behind a person’s drive to engage in their work, perform at a higher quality, and they benefit more from occupational training (Rybnicek et al., 2019). Most theoretical approaches argue that motivation emerges from both “internal factors of an individual that drive action and external factors of the environment that stimulate the action” (Locke & Lantham, 2004, as cited in Rybnicek et al., 2019).
When discussing external factors, McClelland focuses on motivations such as rewards, incentives, reinforcements, and extrinsic motivations (Rybnicek et al., 2019). As another content theory that motivates employees as the McClelland’s need theory has, is that of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow (1954) “people seek to meet their needs, but some needs take precedence over the other” (Raines, 2020, p. 48). Maslow breaks down each need from the highest to the lowest beginning with the physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and last self-actualization (Raines, 2020). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is still widely discussed when it comes basic human needs. This theory can also be applied to the origins and escalation of conflict depending upon how low the issue falls on the hierarchy ladder and people’s willingness to fight for their desired outcome. Internal factors refer to the “internal tension that influences the cognitive processes which underlie behaviors” (Kanfer, 1991, as cited in Rybnicek et al., 2019, p. 446).
Internal motivations are described as those related to personal achievement, a need for affiliation, and the need for power (Rybnicek et al., 2019). Internal factors are also associated with what is known as intrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards are things such as autonomy, meaningful work tasks, challenges, and emotional intimacy just to name a few. In Orrick’s (2008) study, leaders were tasked with identifying generational differences, providing growth and better opportunities, giving feedback and recognition when warranted; and providing adequate training as well as equipment for officers to do their jobs. As an outcome of this study, agencies were able to use exit and ‘stay’ interviews to assess why officers stay as well as why they leave. Surveys can also provide organizations with information to identify what their employees really want to be able to provide them with it. The Bible says, “But you, take courage! Do not let your hands be weak, for your work shall be rewarded” (English Standard Version Bible, 2016, 2 Chr 15:7). With hard work comes good rewards and a sign of appreciation by those in leadership positions.
English Standard Version Bible. (2016). ESV Online. https://biblegateway.com/
Hartwick, J. & Barki, H. (2004). Conceptualizing the construct of interpersonal conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(3), 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb022913
Raines, S.S. (2020). Conflict management for managers: Resolving workplace, client, and policy disputes (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.
Rybnecik, R., Bergner, S., & Gutschelhofer, A. (2019). How individual needs influence motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory. Review of Managerial Science, 13, 443-482. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11846-017-0252-1.pdf