COH 440 Preparedness & Disaster Management


Running Head: THE CHICAGO PROJECT 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

NU Students

The Chicago Project

National University

Professor Blaser, Catherine MPH, RN, PHN, ACRN

COH 440 Preparedness & Disaster Management

24 April 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE CHICAGO PROJECT 2

Introduction

Chicago, Illinois is one of the largest cities in the world. According to the United Census

Bureau, Chicago is the 3rd largest city in the United States with an estimated population of 2.7

million people that lives within 237 square miles (US Census, 2015). With the amount of people

living within these parameters to create a disaster management plan for every possible natural or

man-made disaster would be nearly impossible to accomplish. Federal Emergency Management

Agency (FEMA) suggests an all-hazards approach when planning and preparing for natural or

man-made disaster. All major cities across the United States including Chicago have adopted this

method when implementing disasters plans. However, each major city does its own Hazards and

Vulnerability Analysis using an assessment tool to identify the specific cities at high risk for

naturally occurring, technologic, human-related events and events involving hazardous materials.

Hazards and Vulnerability Analysis

The collaborated analysis report that we performed for Chicago using the Kaiser (HVA

template) showed that our top three natural hazards are all winter weather related; 1st Snow Fall

56%, 2nd Blizzard 52% and 3rd Ice Storms 48%. Given Chicago’s geographical location in the

northern part of the United States, which also sets on the shores of Lake Michigan and its

nickname “The Windy City”, it is easy to understand why Chicago, Illinois is subjected to harsh

winter conditions. In our analysis, we also found that Chicago’s 4th and 5th most significant

natural occurring weather events are summer related; 4th Extreme Temperatures 44% and 5th

Severe Thunderstorms 37%. As a group, we have decided to concentrate on what was our third

most significant occurring natural disaster “Ice Storms” for our public health disaster

management plan.

 

 

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What is an ice storm? An ice storm is one example of a winter storm that is generated by

freezing rain. According to The U.S. National Weather Service, an ice storm is “a storm which

results in the accumulation of at least 0.25-inch of ice on exposed surfaces”(Weather Wiz Kids,

2015). The formation of an ice storm takes place while a layer of warm air is between two areas

of cold air. “Frozen precipitation melts while falling into the warm air layer, and then proceeds to

refreeze in the cold layer above the ground. This creates freezing rain or a glaze of ice”(Weather

Wiz Kids, 2015). Ice Storms are typically heavy accumulations of ice that will create extremely

dangerous travel conditions for residents and emergency workers. Also, the ice storm can

damage trees by breaking their branches that could fall onto streets and freeways making travel

more challenging. The damaged trees and the branches have a strong possibility of falling onto

electrical lines, which then will break and likely cause extended power outages due to the

number of downed power lines and power poles. Trees and power lines that have fallen over may

block roadways and delay travel through the city.

There are many examples of recent Ice Storms in the United States. According to The

Weather Channel, one of the worst Ice Storm on record in the United States happened on the

26th to the 28th of January 2009 stretching from Arkansas and Kentucky (The Weather Channel,

2014). The massive ice layers caused extensive damage to trees, power lines, and power poles

fell on homes, cars and blocked roads. Due to the storm 1.3 million citizens were without power

throughout the multiple states. Some residents had no power for ten days. Natural disasters like

this ice storm in January 2009, teach us lessons on how to better prepare for the next ice storm so

that lives and communities can be served better during harsh times.

Goal Statement

 

 

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To provide continued service and quality of care to the citizens of Chicago during Ice

Storms by rendering; effective, timely and efficient emergency/disaster information,

preparedness, management, response, recovery, and mitigation minimizing the loss of life and

property damage.

Objectives

The first objective is to increase the public awareness of the possibility of an Ice Storm

via public service announcements that are issued by the National Weather Service. The National

Weather Service will issue a severe winter weather watch 24 to 72 hours before the predicted

weather. Within this time frame is when the risk of an ice storm event has increased between 50

to 80%. This watch is intended to provide enough lead-time so those who need to set their plans

in motion can do so. When the risk of an Ice Storm reaches greater than 80%, then a storm

warning will be announced. This warning indicates a weather event is occurring or imminent

which normally pose a threat to life or property damage.

The second objective is to establish and publish guidelines to the public for pre-storm

preparation to include education on what to do during a storm and outdoor travel in a storm

whether by foot or automobile. One of the most critical objectives of a natural or man-made

disaster is the response. First responders should only perform the immediate response to an ice

storm: Police, Fire, Emergency Services (EMS), Utility Workers and Department of Highways

Services. The aftermath of Ice storms can leave behind extremely hazardous conditions. This

immediate response coincides with the recovery phase.

The recovery phase is one of the most important objectives in the eyes of the general

public. As important as it is to the public the recovery phase is usually the most expensive aspect

and should start immediately after the storm passes. The objective of recovery is to return the

 

 

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city back to normal by restoring crucial services; gas, power, sewage and water. Additionally, it

is important to ensure that it is safe to travel through the city by clearing roads and bridges of ice,

trees and other debris that may be making travel difficult.

Ecological Strategy and Emergency Planning Model

It is important to have a detailed all-hazards plan in emergency preparedness for effective

and dependable response to any kind of emergency and disaster, whatever the cause maybe

(Nagel, 2016). In Chicago, severe winter weather such as ice storms, blizzards and snowfall are

expected every year. According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, since

1950, there are 100 severe winter storms events in the planning area. The planning areas consists

of the following: old structures with low code standards, secluded population that are at high

risk, limited backup power generation, and alternative power supply must be assessed.

Normally, the planning area has 36 inches of snow annually (Cook County, Homeland Security

& Emergency Management, 2014).

Ice storms are catastrophic to humans, plants and animal life (Zhang et al, 2016). An

emergency preparedness plan is vital to prepare each family and individual in the community,

local government, public and private sectors and first responders to severe winter weather or in

any emergency. To prepare the community, the Office of Emergency Management and

Communications (OEMC) have all the information, procedures, educational activity and

resources. The OEMC strategy is to provide preparedness training, emergency kit essentials,

business safety, home safety, and communication plan to assist the community how to be ready

for ice storm and other emergencies. It is a continuous learning process and development to

minimize problems during emergency situations (Alert Chicago, 2010).

 

 

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After formulating a disaster preparedness plan, an emergency response plan is necessary

to take actions after the emergency call for ice storms. It is the urgent reaction to an emergency;

it provides immediate assistance to warn affected areas or communities. Also, it identifies

potential emergency hazards through risk assessment (Nagel, 2016). Moreover, it determines

the type of assistance is needed in an emergency situation, before sending the first responders or

equipment (Emergency Response Plan, n. d.). All affected communities must be warned to stay

indoors to prevent further injury. Subsequently, assess all the resources available to stabilize the

incident, which includes manpower, tools and equipment, and systems. Also, have an effective

and efficient communication with all the public emergency services such as the law enforcement,

emergency medical services and fire department to have a better knowledge about their response

time to the ice storm. Make sure that all the names and contact numbers of the key personnel are

visible in the emergency response plan. The law enforcement will implement security measures.

Coordination with different agencies (government and non-government) crowd control, search

and rescue and maintain peace and order to prevent looting. Fire departments have a major role

in all disasters; aside from providing medical care, they also help in search and rescue, handle

hazardous materials, patient transport and coordinates with different agencies (government and

non-government). For emergency medical services, CPR or First aid personnel and other trained

volunteers will provide first aid treatments, search and rescue, advanced medical care and

transport victims to temporary shelters or hospital. They also work closely with the fire fighters

in treating and transporting victims. First responders will assist the victims to calm the situation,

help them with their concerns and mobilization (Galls Blog, 2011). Furthermore, an evacuation

plan is required as part of the response plan to direct the affected people in certain communities

and provide them a safer location during the emergency. To achieve a successful emergency

 

 

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response plan, training and exercises must be conducted to practice and evaluate the

effectiveness of the plan (Developing Emergency Plan, n. d.). In the evacuation plan, all key

personnel names, contact numbers and locations must be listed for faster access of resources and

quicker communication response. In addition, part of a good emergency preparedness plan is to

have a constant collaboration with media and other agencies such as National Oceanic and

Atmospheric Administration (provide scientific information to have a better understanding about

the environment), The Weather Channel (for weather alerts), FEMA (recommendations on

strategic plans), American Red Cross, Salvation Army and etc., are very helpful in fostering

more effective service to the affected communities by the ice storm or any disaster as a result of

effective communication, coordination and cooperation (Disaster Emergency Agencies, 2016).

These agencies are good sources of emergency preparedness information and awareness for any

disaster. They can recommend strategies and procedures on how to be prepared in an ice storm

or any disaster.

In the recovery phase, actions in restoration of important functions and the administration

of reconstruction (Nagel, 2016). According to Alert Chicago, it is the most difficult phase after

the disaster. It is the phase where life of the victims and infrastructures must come to its minimal

to normal function. During disaster, the state, local government and agencies have available help

for the people, but it may not be reached on time to those who are affected. There may be delays

due to road and weather conditions that is why families and communities are advised to develop

their own emergency plan before any disaster may occur. There are many areas that require

advance and thorough planning, and these areas are the following: crisis counseling,

decontamination, debris clearance, reassessment of emergency plans, disaster loans, grants,

damage assessments, reassessment of emergency plans, reconstruction, and temporary housing.

 

 

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During recovery phase, personal and community involvement is highly encouraged (2010). In

recovery phase, members of other communities outside the affected areas such as territorial

partners and tribal may be utilized to implement continuous efforts and faster response and

recovery operations (FEMA Strategic Plan, 2014). Most importantly, there should be

accountability and transparency in recovery programs that will manage government funds for the

ice storm. Comparable to Hurricane Sandy, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of

2009 formulated a site to display all the activities pertaining to recovery, distribution and

spending of funds (Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board, n.d.). The site also

provides information about recovery resources such as education, jobs and policy. Recovery is a

long-term and continuous process, activities and programs must be continuously re-evaluated to

improve the emergency preparedness plan and accomplish better results, to save more lives, and

protect infrastructures for any future disasters or emergencies.

Another phase of emergency management is mitigation. Mitigation specifies the

measures that can minimize the damaging effects of ice storm and other disasters. It identifies

all hazards and risk in the area. Risk analysis provides a ground for mitigation measures such

formulating building codes, construction barriers and zone requirements. It builds safe

environment by minimizing property and infrastructure damage and decreasing loss of life (The

Four Phases of Emergency Management, 2016). A basic example of a mitigation program is the

building standards accepted by 20,000 communities all over the nation. The country is saving

approximately more than 1 billion dollars annually in prevention of flood damages due to

mitigation programs (St. Louis County, 2016).

As reported by WGN 9, Chicago Weather Center, one of the worst ice storm that hit

Chicago was on January 1965. Most of the schools and businesses were closed and travel was

 

 

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the biggest problem due to icy roads. There was power outage for several days in many

communities. Numerous trees were collapsed that caused damage in the city. The whole city

was coated with ice and there were a great number of injuries related to falls. Also, various

flooded basement incidents occurred because of the power outage (2010). To prevent further

damage and prepare the city for future emergencies, through the years, emergency planning has

improved to prevent severe damage to people and property with the help of local government,

FEMA and other disaster agencies efforts. An emergency-planning model will guide the local

government to distribute manpower, services and resources to affected areas.

In the event of an ice storm, there is an emergency planning team that is responsible for

decision, direction and control of the situation. The emergency planning team should be familiar

with the area and the needs of the community. In addition, they should also have the skills to lead

and motivate the team to implement an emergency plan. The planning team must have a team

leader and supportive members. Each team member must know his or her area of responsibility

for effective distribution of labor, this will minimize confusion and promote teamwork. All

essential key personnel must report to the team leader and be aware of their different

assignments. Next is to identify the hazards, using a hazard and vulnerability analysis (HVA).

An HVA can determine the hazards and threats that will impact the community. After

identifying all the hazards and threats, the planning team will easily decide what appropriate

protective actions to implement depending on the type of emergency situation, for example, the

need for immediate evacuation, shelter, shelter in place, medical care, food, transport and etc.

The worst ice storm ever recorded in Chicago did not cause any serious damage to the city. But,

there were collapsed trees, accidental injuries due to falls, and travel problems.

 

 

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In mitigation phase in an ice storm emergency, there should actions to prepare for power

outage like an alternative source of power, emergency water and food supply, and

communication tools such as two-way radios. Also, an evacuation location must be available in

case of floods, collapsed trees affecting resident’s homes, and any hazardous chemicals present.

Part of the preparedness phase is to train staff and residents regarding their emergency

responsibilities, evacuation routes and locations of temporary shelters. Make sure that

equipment and supplies (emergency kits) are fully stocked and ready. If there’s a need for the

victims to transfer to a temporary shelter before the ice storm, victims can bring their own family

emergency kits. Prior to the ice storm, there should be a public service announcement reminding

people to be ready for the coming ice storm. In the response phase, stabilization and mobilization

is important, to prevent loss of life and property damage. Residents or community should receive

the proper medical care, transport, evacuation and etc. During ice storm, everyone should stay

inside their residence and should follow instructions from the local government and fire

departments. In case of power outage, never use candles to prevent fires.

In emergency situations, as mentioned earlier, first responders, the law enforcement and

fire fighters have different roles in responding to situations but with good communication and

coordination, it’s always possible to render service to all the victims effectively and efficiently.

In the recovery stage restoration of the city and of services is the main goal. People have

different tolerance when it comes to physical pain and experience, for some, an ice storm can be

a traumatic experience. There should be post-crisis counseling for residents and staff. There

should be an alternative housing for the victims that are still making repairs in their homes.

Resources from different disaster agencies are vital for a faster and easier recovery (Emergency

Planning Guide, n.d.), including jobs, education, insurance, funds and loans. Personal and

 

 

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community involvement is highly recommended in the recovery stage. The recovery timeline

will all depend on the severity of the ice storm damage (Winter Storm and Blizzard Plan, 2015).

Emergency Management

Emergency management is the creation of plans in preventing and reducing injuries

before and after an event. There are four phases of emergency management, preparedness,

response, recover, and mitigation. There is a protocol for procedures that planners achieve

through coordination and integration of plans across all levels of governmental and non-

governmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals and families (FEMA, 2010).

FEMA has conducted community-based planning that also involves community leaders and the

private sector in the planning process to engage a whole community by using a planning process

that represents the actual population in the community (FEMA, 2010). Being prepared for a

disaster and major incidents can identify operational assumptions of threats and hazards, get

resource demands, prioritize plans, arrange planning efforts to support a community, and most

importantly respond to the event for recovery (FEMA, 2010). Developing to integrate and

synchronize efforts across all levels of government can very well protect and prevent major

efforts.

The planning process is key in any emergency management to protect lives, property, and

the environment. The planning must be community-based in order to understand the composition

to represent the whole populations and its needs (FEMA, 2010). Knowing a community with

disabilities, access and functional needs, and for the needs of children can benefit the planning

process for an emergency.

Having an emergency management in place for Chicago’s winter weather is

critical to protect a community. According to the Illinois Emergency Management Agency, since

 

 

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1997 about 177 people have died from exposure to cold temperatures in Illinois (Illinois

Emergency, n.d.). Illinois have winter storms every year and on average, experiences five severe

winter storms each year (Illinois Emergency, n.d.). To reduce the number of causalities, Chicago

has produced an effective emergency plan to implement during an ice storm. The actions taken in

the initial minutes of an emergency are critical. Based on past ice storms that occurred within the

United States, some events were lessons learned for emergency management through history.

The extensive southern ice storm that cost about three billion dollars affected several states

leaving some residents in Mississippi without power for a month after the storm (Dolce &

Erdman, 2014). Some of the after-actions were poorly addressed and unorganized if residents

were without power for several weeks. By evaluating an incident people can learn through a

systematic analysis of what had to be fixed and addressed. Another lesson learned for emergency

management was the Arkansas and Kentucky ice storm in January 2009, that claimed twenty-

four lives in Kentucky and another eighteen in Arkansas due to a combination of traffic

accidents, hypothermia, and carbon monoxide poisoning (Dolce & Erdman, 2014). Due to this

incident, FEMA has prewritten emergency ordinances that facilitate recovery operations (FEMA,

2010). Emergency management will also be able to identify lessons and strengths to be sustained

and weaknesses that need to be corrected. This will help emergency management learn how to

prevent the recurrence of adverse events, to take action, and to better fix situations and problems

that are likely to arise.

The National Weather Service created terms that convey the weather threat to the public

(Illinois Emergency, n.d.). Some of the terms to convey the upcoming conditions vary between

watches, warning, and advisories. This may include indication of heavy snow, ice, blizzards,

chills, rain, sleet, or a combination of all. Each of the listed warning threats that the State

 

 

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announces before the storm has a detailed description of what to expect. The National Weather

Service describes an ice storm warning as, “heavy accumulations of ice will create extremely

dangerous travel conditions, damage trees and likely cause extended power outages” (Illinois

Emergency, n.d.). This description should help families better understand what to expect.

During an announcement the State of Illinois will provide county names that identify

areas at risk, and to provide health precautions to protect families during the winter months

(Illinois Emergency, n.d.). Illinois advise every home to have a disaster kit or emergency

supplies for work and home (Illinois Emergency, n.d.). To ensure the safety of a home the state

of Illinois recommends before an ice storm to winterize your home, to extend your fuel supply,

to take steps to prevent frozen water pipes, prepare for possible isolation in your home for

several days, and prepare you vehicle for the winter (Illinois Emergency, n.d.). This will protect

homes in a community to ensure their safety. After an ice storm, a community will announce

when it is safe to return to normal activities. If any damage was done during the ice storm the

community will take action in repairing, replacing, or rebuilding property. When an emergency

occurs, the first priority is the safety of the people. Having an emergency management plan is

important for any type of event, incident, and disaster it can help save hundreds of lives.

Surge

To develop a plan for a response to a significant surge event, several strategies and tools

must be provided to assist with plan development and implementation. There is a greater chance

in developing frostbite and hypothermia during extreme weather conditions. Any type of injury

is a threat, so a community must always have an array of effective prevention strategies.

Therefore, a hospitals surge plan may be incorporated into an Emergency Operations Plan

(EOP). This may include a series of policies, procedure and protocols (California Hospital,

 

 

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2013). A surge plans policies and procedures should address internal and external

communication and interaction regarding current emergency status for surge levels, regulatory

status, the type, scope and expected duration of an event, and escalation and de-escalation as new

information is received (California Hospital, 2013). The goal of a good plan is to have adequate

detailed information to allow implementation by staff that may not be familiar with the plan.

According to an article, Exploring the Concept of Surge Capacity, an online journal of issues in

nursing stated, “developing standardized terminology and establishing clear questions regarding

the concept of surge capacity are essential for effective disaster planning and preparedness”

(Adams, 2009). During an event having job action sheets, task checklists, and other tools already

prepared and developed can help provide direction at a surge event to organize and implement a

surge plan. However, it can be difficult for a healthcare organization or region to know what

needs to be done to achieve surge capacity for large-scale events or how plans will need to

change based on the type of event (Adams, 2009). Nevertheless, to ensure the best outcomes in

any disaster or incident, surge capacity must be operationalized effectively across the full

spectrum of healthcare (Adams, 2009). Incidents can be overwhelming, but by developing an

effective disaster plan within a community can minimize the casualties during a surge event.

A comprehensive surge plan is essential for reacting to a disaster event. According to the

National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems, “surge capacity refers to the

coordination of supplies, structure, and most importantly, staffing” (National Association, 2007).

Having an adequate number of hospital workers and volunteers affect the number of operational

beds available and, ultimately, the amount of patients that can be cared for during an emergency

(National Association, 2007). During an emergency, hospital receive more patients than they can

handle, therefore need to be prepared. During an ice storm power outages are likely to occur

 

 

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leaving communities without power for several days or weeks. Hospitals and emergency centers

need to prepare before an unexpected power outage or ice storm happens. It is important to stock

up on non-perishable foods and essentials such as flashlights, batteries, and generators to

accommodate the rise in the number of patients. In doing so, hospitals and emergency centers

will be capable of maintaining and managing the full capacity of patient surge during an

emergency.

 

Special Planning Considerations

In the event of an ice storm there are special planning considerations in the event that

there may be a mass casualty (five or more patients) or hazardous material incident. As

mentioned throughout the plan ice storms cause downed power lines, power poles, and trees due

to high winds. Downed power lines, poles, and trees block road ways and can leave people

stranded in their cars. Depending on how long people are stranded for, and how well they are

prepared for the ice storm will determine if a mass casualty will occur. To avoid a mass casualty

it is paramount for workers to remove anything that is paralyzing transportation systems. To

ensure the safety of the workers special planning for training for removing debris from roadways

in an ice storm should be conducted. Training should include education on the heightened risk of

the hazards associated with downed power lines and poles. Hazards such as the increase risk of

electrocution and accidental falls during the removal of debris in an ice storm. The United States

Department of Labor has OSHA (Occupational Safety& Health Administration) guidelines for

the proper protective equipment (PPE) that workers should wear in winter weather. PPE

includes: gloves, chaps, feet protection, eye protection, fall protection, hearing protection, and

head protection (OSHA, n.d.). Education on energized vs. de-energized work should also be

 

 

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conducted due to the risk of moisture reducing the isolation value of PPE (OSHA, n.d.). When

energized work has to be conducted an energized hazard analysis that includes evaluating

weather conditions and identifying how to safely complete the job should be conducted (OSHA,

n.d.). Education must also include the risk of being struck or crushed by falling tree limbs or

collapsing poles. Special planning considerations should include animal evaluation, to assess the

needs of pets and livestock in an ice storm. Also, plans for special needs populations for

comprehensive planning between public and private sectors to maintain transportation, care

supervision and communication (Capital City Development Corps, 2009).

 

Evaluation

It is important to evaluate our program through process, outcome, and impact

evaluations. The purpose of evaluation is to ensure that our programs objectives have been

properly implemented as intended, to track progress, and to measure our program effectiveness.

Our process evaluation will ask questions such as: Where educational training for workers been

conducted? Has the public been made aware of possible ice storms? And have they been

educated on pre-storm preparation and outdoor travel? During our outcome evaluation we will

ask questions such as: Through worker education on debris removal during ice storms where

workers more likely to wear their PPE to avoid injury? Did implementation of education on

storm preparation decrease morbidity? Lastly, during impact evaluation we will ask did The

Chicago Project improve the material and systematic readiness for the city of Chicago to provide

continued service and quality of care? Did the plan decrease morbidity and property damage?

The Chicago Project can be tested and tried in a full-scale exercise (FSE), but until the next ice

storm hits the city of Chicago a complete evaluation of our plan is inconclusive. The evaluation

 

 

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design used here is non-experimental (predictive experiment). In a Pharmacological Research

Institute study showed that 70% of Chicagoans have never experienced a disaster, impacting the

citizen’s sense of urgency to prepare for a natural disaster (Capital City Development Corps,

2009). Our second objective is to bring awareness, educate, and prepare the citizens of Chicago

for an ice storm. We predict that through education Chicagoans will increase their urgency to

prepare for ice storms.

Conclusion

 

Because Chicago is the third largest city in the United States, and they experience severe

weather every year to include ice storms it is important to learn from past ice storms, and to

make new plans for future ice storms in Chicago. The Chicago project intends to educate the

public to increase awareness of ice storms and the impact that they can have on their community.

The goal is to decrease injury, morbidity, and property damage. We believe that through our

emergency preparedness plan we can make an impact on communities and families living in

Chicago.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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References

Adams, L. M. (2009). Exploring the Concept of Surge Capacity. Online Journal Of Issues In

Nursing, 14(2), 8.

Alert Chicago. (2010). Retrieved from https://www.cityofchicago.org

California Hospital Association (2013 August 19). Surge Planning Checklist. Retrieved from

http://www.calhospitalprepare.org/healthcare-surge

Capitol City Development Corps. (2009). Emergency Preparedness Report. Retrieved from:

http://www.ccdcboise.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Document-G1-Emergency-

Preparedness-Report.pdf

Chicago’s Worst Ice Storm. (2010). Retrieved from https://chicagoweathercenter.com

Developing the Emergency Response Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ready.gov

Disaster Emergency Agencies. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.theguidetorecovery.com

Dolce, C., & Erdman, J. (2014, February 12). The Nation’s 10 Worst Ice Storms. Retrieved from:

https://weather.com/storms/winter/news/top-10-worst-ice-storms-20131205#/8

Facts & Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/about/facts.html

FEMA (2010, November). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans:

Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101 Version 2.0. Retrieved from

https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1828-25045-

0014/cpg_101_comprehensive_preparedness_guide_developing_and_maintaining_emerg

ency_operations_plans_2010.pdf

FEMA Strategic Plan. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov

Galls Blog. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.gallsblog.com

 

 

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Illinois Emergency Management Agency (n.d.). Winter Weather Preparedness Guide. Retrieved

from https://www.illinois.gov/iema/Preparedness/Documents/winter_storm_preparedness

_guidebook.pdf

Nagel, K. (2016). All hands planning. Retrieved from https://www.wrightstateuniversity

National Association of Public Health and Health Systems. (2007). Hospital Staffing and Surge

Capacity During a Disaster. Retrieved from: http://essentialhospitals.org/wp-

content/uploads/2014/10/May2007researchBreif.pdf

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2014).

Retrieved from https://www.cookcountyhomelandsecurity.org

National Weather Service Expanded Winter Weather Terminology. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

http://www.weather.gov/bgm/WinterTerms

Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015). (n.d.). Retrieved from:

http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/1714000

Recovery Accounts and Transparency Board. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.recovery.gov

United States Department of Labor. (n.d). Occupational Safety & Health Administration,

hazards/Precautions. Retrieved from:

https://www.osha.gov/dts/weather/winter_weather/hazards_precautions.html

Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-winter-storms.htm

Zhang, Q. (2016). Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination

of functional traits behavioral adaptations and habitat modifications. Scientific report 6

Article 22344. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com

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