Leadership Characteristics and Style

Running head: LEADERSHIP ACTIVITY / M7A1 6

























Leadership Characteristics and Style

As to leadership characteristics, Bradberry’s (2019) definition states “Leadership is a process of social influence which maximizes the efforts of others toward the achievement of a greater good”. The author dismisses the assumption of “greater good” due to the fact that throughout history and even in the current state of affairs, as it applies to the process of social influence, some leaders have do not necessarily work towards achievement of the “great good”. Indeed, in many cases social influence is used for selfish objectives and gains. However, some traits or characteristics of leadership that are considered good by Brian Tracy (2020) are vision, honesty, humility, courage, integrity, focus, and strategic planning. Both Bradley (2019) and Tracy (2020), do not make mention any special qualities for leadership such as social status, age, gender etc., other than you have these traits or characteristics.

According to Frandsen (2014), in nursing there are 5 types or leadership styles; Servant, Transformational, Authoritarian or Autocratic, Democratic, and Laissez-faire. Servant leadership is characterized by making sure that the needs of the team are satisfied with the entire team having input in decisions. Transformational leadership uses motivation, inspiration and a collaborative approach to decision making as well. Authoritarian or Autocratic leadership is hierarchical and uses an approach where the leader makes all the decisions without input from the team. Democratic leadership uses the approach of teamwork combined with and responsibilities on the part of team members as to the work that is done. The Laissez-faire type leadership style uses a hands-off approach with little to no leadership (Frandsen, 2014).



Leadership Style and Meeting 1

At Meeting 1, which was a virtual town hall hosted by the New York State Nurses Association on March 18, 2020, the major focus was on the ramifications of the COVID-19 on nurses and other health care workers (HCW). For the most part, the authoritarian style of leadership was used because information from people such as front line nurses and elected leaders were disseminated. However, there were aspects of transactional leadership because despite it al, there was we will survive messaging although the statistical data was sobering. Democratic leadership as far as information dissemination was also used because we were reminded of our responsibilities based on our position in leadership (nurse manager, charge nurse etc.) and were able to call in with questions and comments on information received.

Leadership Style and Meeting 2

The Clinical Outreach meeting held on March 25.2020 was a COVID-19 update as it relates to the optimization of the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). This meeting was hosted by the organization and featured leaders from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and held through the use of COCA CALLS/WEBINARS. In this clinical outreach meeting, strategies were discussed on the use of PPE and related equipment. This meeting used the transformational and democratic leadership styles because it was a discussion where nurses, physicians, pharmacists, veterinarians, physician assistants, and other clinicians were able provide input as well as ask questions. Although the meeting was informative it was also interactive. The transformational aspects of leadership equate with the fact that it was aimed at inspiring hope.


Leadership Style and Meeting 3

Meeting 3 was also held using COCA CALLS WEBINARS and was another clinical outreach activity. This time the topic was coronavirus or COVID-19 and adults with chronic disease. Leadership from organizations such as the CDC lead the discussion which was attended by emergency health care workers from physicians – Certified Nursing Assistants. Again, the leadership styles used was a combination of authoritarian, democratic, and transformational. As with the other two meetings, the major focus was providing and disseminating directives, questions being allowed to be asked, and transformational because of the focus on hope and the ability to change the situation.

Communication Process

The communication process used by the leaders of each meeting can be summarized as using the Situation Background Assessment Recommendation model or tool. In each presentation of information, the current situation was clearly stated, a background of how the situation was arrived at, the assessment of the situation means and how it affects the team individually and as a whole, and finally recommendations on how to address the situation of lack of PPE, staff etc., the politics of affecting the issue was provided. According to the Joint Commission (2013), SBAR is a easy to use, but effective tool for effective communication between people.

Leadership Style and Healthcare Issues Addressed

The leadership styles used by the healthcare professionals from the national organizations were effective in that the information was provided in a clear, concise manner which allowed the listeners to get an accurate view of the current situation regarding the coronavirus or COVID-19 as it also called. The group of healthcare professionals who attending the meeting got most of their questions answered either through the presentations and discussions of information provided. The NYSNA emphasized the importance of nurses being unified in standing up for our rights to have the proper equipment so that we can do our job which is as always, helping to save patients’ lives and bring comfort and assistance for healing. The elected officials and officials from organizations like the CDC have confirmed the situation of the current ramifications of not being prepared. Brochures and information on other websites were provided as additional information on this distressing topic.


Running head: LEADERSHIP ACTIVITY / M7A1 1


The focus on COVID-19 by each meeting was appropriate. Hearing from the front line nurses was especially enlightening because it demonstrated the ability to survive this pandemic using nursing knowledge and commitment to the ethical values of nursing practice, which in this case is beneficence and altruism because were are risking our lives in the truest sense of the word each time we go to work. However, meeting with my colleagues to engage in receiving knowledge about COVID-19 and the current strategies to used against it was empowering!!!! Although the ramifications of this novel virus are tremendous and tragic in the same instance, I am confident that the HCWs who attended these meetings feel better prepared to deal with this dilemma more effectively.



Organization sponsoring meeting

Meeting one




Meeting two


Clinician outreach and communication activity (CDC)



Meeting three


Clinician outreach and communication activity (CDC)



Meeting Name and Date Virtual Town Hall: Capital Region healthcare crisis/ and 03/18/2020 COVID-19 Update: Optimization Strategies for Healthcare Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Wednesday March 25.2020 Clinical Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Meeting Purpose COVID-19: what are the latest updates to keep our communities safe?

Preparedness: Hear from frontline nurses about the protocols and protections that are in place to prevent the spread of Coronavirus.

Will enough nurses be there to answer the call? Hear how understaffing impacts patient care in a time of healthcare crisis.

· Patient and Nurse Safety: What are hospitals doing to prevent violence in our community hospitals?


During this COCA Call, presenters will provide a COVID-19 update and discuss strategies for healthcare facilities to optimize personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies such as eye protection, isolation gowns, facemasks, and N95 respirators. For clinicians to provide an overview of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients, including case presentations of critically ill adults and clinical management challenges, and summarize recently published guidelines on clinical management of critically ill adults
Meeting Setting, identify if virtual or in person Virtual Town Hall COCA CALLS/WEBINARS COCA CALLS


Health care issue Update for COVID 19, Facility Preparedness, Will enough nurses be there to answer the call? and Patient and Nurse Safety: COVID-19 Update: Optimization Strategies for Healthcare Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Clinical Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)


Meeting Leader, title, and responsibility Assembly members Phil Steck and Pat Fahy will co-host this important virtual town hall meeting addressing COVID-19 Nancy Messonnier, MD Director, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention LCDR Grace D. Appiah, MD, MS (USPHS) COVID-19 Health System-Worker Safety Task Force Clinical Team Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Michael Bell, MD Deputy Director of Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention David T. Kuhar, MD COVID-19 Hospital Infection Prevention Team Lead Centers for Disease Control and Prevention David T. Kuhar, MD COVID-19 Hospital Infection Prevention Team Lead Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CAPT Tim Uyeki, MD Clinical Team Lead COVID-19 Response Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Michael Bundesmann, MD, FCCP Medical Director of Respiratory Therapy Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, EvergreenHealth Kirkland, WA

Waleed Alhazzani, MD, MSc, FRCPC Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario, Canada



Attendees and their role Nurses · Physicians, Nurses,

· Pharmacists

· Veterinarians

· Physician Assistants

· Health Educators

· Other Clinicians


Emergency health care professionals



















Bradley, T. (March 29, 2019). What makes a leader? SUCCESS Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.success.com/what-makes-a-leader/

Brian, T. (2020). The 7 leadership qualities: attributes & characteristics of good leaders. Brian Tracy International. Retrieved from https://www.briantracy.com/blog/leadership- success/the-seven-leadership-qualities-of-great-leaders-strategic-planning/

Frandsen, (2014). Nursing leadership, management and leadership styles. American Association of Nurse Assessment Coordination, 1-10. Retrieved from https://www.aanac.org/docs/white-papers/2013-nursing-leadership—management- leadership-styles.pdf?sfvrsn=2

Joint Commission, The. (11, 19, 2013). SBAR – a powerful tool to help improve communication! [Blog] Retrieved from https://www.jointcommission.org/en/resources/news-and-multimedia/blogs/at-home- with-the-joint-commission/2013/11/sbar—a-powerful-tool-to-help-improve- communication/

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