Literature Review and Critical Appraisal












Literature Review and Critical Appraisal

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Literature Review

In their study, Khalil et al. (2016) found that 48.7% of cancer patients in various healthcare settings also suffered from anxiety or depression. They found out that some of the primary factors associated with cancer patients and its correlation with anxiety and depression included education, cancer in the family, pain severity, and awareness of the patient on anxiety and depression. Based on the elevated prevalence of anxiety and depression in cancer survivors, the study revealed that counseling and screening were critical aspects.

Critical appraisal

Its strength lies on the thoroughness of study involving different aspects of the disease such as education, family history, pain, anxiety and depression. However, one weakness is that it did not highlight the keywords to guide through its literature review. There was also a gap in the literature review as the studies used in supporting the claim were outdated, dating back to as early as the 1990s. This diminishes the credibility of the literature review.

Literature review

In their study, McFarland and Holland (2016) described the distress screening, psychological effects, and management of specific comorbid psychological diagnoses among cancer patients in oncological settings. McFarland and Holland (2016) found that the management of the psychological concerns among cancer patients is a necessity that should go along with the cancer diagnosis.



Critical appraisal

One strength of the literature review is that it uses many other studies/literature to support its claims. Additionally, it was logically organized, with subheading used for guidance. However, a significant weakness of this literature review is that majority of the literature is outdated. Additionally, it did not highlight the keywords.

Literature Review

According to Goldstein, Gathright, and Garcia (2017), the efforts to apply psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy to reduce the impacts of depression symptoms have been futile. They have shown no success in reducing the associated mortality rates. In their study Goldstein, Gathright, and Garcia (2017) asserted that to alleviate depression, healthcare professionals have to adopt an integrated and collaborative approach to address cultural (for instance, spirituality), psychosocial and medical processes.

Critical Appraisal

One strength of the literature review is that it supports its claims with numerous previous studies. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the literature’s credibility, as the studies used are outdated.

Literature Review

Cancer patients face both emotional and psychological impacts, which appear several years after their treatment. According to MD Anderson Cancer Center (2020), 70% of the patients who recover from cancer experience depression at one time in their lifetime. These psychological and emotional impacts are based on the costly treatment process that affects both the patient and their families, including surgeries. These factors are responsible for the high prevalence of mental illness among cancer patients, with depression being the most common (MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2020). It found that spirituality among the most critical remedies for improving the cancer patients and family’s quality of life through reducing depression, improving physiological function, and enhancing a potent social support network.

Critical appraisal

One notable strength in the review is that it highlights the keywords, including spirituality, depression, grief, cancer patients, fear of recurrence, and relationships. Additionally, it uses statistical data to bring out empirical evidence. However, one major weakness noted is that it has inadequate literature to support the claims.

Literature Review

According to Ferrell et al. (2020), spirituality is a critical aspect of quality of life and a primary supportive tool in serious sicknesses and treatments. In their study, Ferrell et al. (2020) found that out of 479 cancer patients, while 83.1% showed religious affiliations, 16.9% comprised those who barely responded to the interviews and did not show religious affiliation. They concluded that patients transiting to phase 1 trial had critical spiritual needs to guide them in their treatment, the disease complications, and mortality.

Critical appraisal

One strength of the literature is that it applied numerous previous studies to bring out adequate data that support its purpose. Besides, the majority of the literature is updated, which makes the literature credible. However, one weakness of the literature is that it had inadequate empirical data to support the purpose of the study.



Ferrell, B., Chung, V., Koczywas, M., Borneman, T., Irish, T. L., Ruel, N. H., … & Smith, T. J. (2020). Spirituality in cancer patients on phase 1 clinical trials. Psycho‐Oncology.

Goldstein, C., Gathright, E., & Garcia, S. (2017). Relationship between depression and medication adherence in cardiovascular disease: the perfect challenge for the integrated care team. Patient Preference And AdherenceVolume 11, 547-559.

Khalil, A., Faheem, M., Fahim, A., Innocent, H., Mansoor, Z., Rizvi, S., & Farrukh, H. (2016). Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychiatry Journal2016, 1-6.

McFarland, D., & Holland, J. (2016). The Management of Psychological Issues in Oncology. Clinical Advances In Hematology & Oncology14(12).

MD Anderson Cancer Center. (2020). Social & Emotional Impacts of Cancer. Retrieved 21 September 2020, from,ones%20can%20minim

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