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Main Post week 6 – Nicole
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Maria is a 36-year-old who presents for evaluation of a cough. She is normally a healthy young lady with no significant medical history. She takes no medications and does not smoke. She reports that she was in her usual state of good health until approximately 3 weeks ago when she developed a “really bad cold.” The cold is characterized by a profound, deep, mucus-producing cough. She denies any rhinorrhea or rhinitis—the primary problem is the cough. She develops these coughing fits that are prolonged, very deep, and productive of a lot of green sputum. She hasn’t had any fever but does have a scratchy throat. Maria has tried over-the-counter cough medicines but has not had much relief. The cough keeps her awake at night and sometimes gets so bad that she gags and dry heaves.
In the above scenario Maria most likely has acute bronchitis. Acute Bronchitis is characterized by productive/or non-productive cough, malaise, shortness of breath, and, wheezing (Singj & Zahn, 2019). With bronchitis it is common to experience paroxysmal coughing especially at night (Huether & McCance, 2017). Acute Bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infections the most common being influenza, rhinovirus or something similar (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). Inflammation from an upper airway infections can travel down to the bronchi leading to bronchitis (Singi & Zahn, 2019). The cough from bronchitis usually lasts from 7-10 days but can be prolonged for weeks (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Treatment for bronchitis is typically rest, humidity and cough suppressants (Huether & McCance, 2017).
For people who smoke or are exposed to chemicals have an increased chances of developing bronchitis (National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute [NHLBI], n.d.). Elderly patients, children, and immune-compromised patients are at higher risk of contracting bronchitis as well (NHLBI, n.d.).
Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute [NHLBI], (n.d). Bronchitis. Retrieved from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/bronchitis
Singh, A. & Zahn, E. (2019). Acute bronchitis. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448067/
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