Running head: NURSING THEORIES
Theories refer to a collection of interrelated ideas that provide a systematic picture of a phenomenon (an observable truth or event) that is predictive and explanatory in nature (McEwen & Wills, 2017). Theories are made of models, propositions, definitions, concepts, and involve assumptions. Theories are made through inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning methods. They are the principal methods used by nursing theorists. Theory projects are a systematic, tentative, and purposeful view of an unproven idea, and that’s why it is referred to as a rigorous and creative structuring of concepts. Concepts are phrases that explain properties, objects, or events and are the backbone components of theory (Alligood, 2017). For instance, in nursing theory, the main common concepts include the environment, health, patient, and nursing. However, the patient is the most important concept among the four, as it is the focus of nursing. The research work will focus on grand and middle-range nursing theories.
Virginia Henderson theory
One of the grand nursing theories is Virginia Henderson’s theory, which discusses the principles and practice of nursing. Virginia Avenal Henderson was a known nursing instructor and author (Watkins, 2020). In 1937, he made a basic nursing guide assisted by others for the national team for nursing, where education was only centered on the patient and concentrate on nursing difficulties instead of medical diagnosis. In 1939, Virginia revisited Harmer’s high-class textbook of nursing when writing her fourth edition and afterward wrote the fifth copy, displaying her personal description of nursing. She often visited the nursing schools even after her retirement. According to O’Malley, she is today’s source of nursing because her writings influenced the world of nursing.
Henderson originated from Missouri but was raised in Virginia (Jacob, 2018). In 1921, she banged a nursing diploma at Walter Reed hospital from the Army School of Nursing. For two years, after graduating, she worked at the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service. Later she taught at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital located in Virginia for seven years. In 1929, she joined Columbia University Teachers College graduating with a bachelor’s degree in nursing in the year 1932 and later on in 1934, banged a master’s degree. Until 1948, she was a faculty member at Columbia. In 1996, she died at the age of 98. As a sign of honor, the international nursing library-Sigma Theta Tau was named after her.
Henderson schooled during the experimentation era in nursing and medicine, which concentrated on patient needs. During her graduate studies is when she was introduced to principles of physiology, which made the basis for the care of her patient. The theory does not consider the patient as a consumer or a client, but as a collection of parts which has biopsychosocial requirements. Her main nursing experiences were based on surgery. However, she worked in New York as a visiting nurse. Through this, her experience to know the urgency of increasing the independence of the patient, so that after hospitalization not to delay the progress greatly increased. Henderson’s theory mainly focuses on nurse education, as she was a nurse educator.
The main assumption of Henderson’s theory states that until when patients can care for themselves, nurses should care for them (Eastland, 2017. Her assumption is that patients ought to return to health once again. However, her assumption is not stated explicitly. Secondly, Henderson assumes that nurses will sacrifice themselves day and night for the patient as they are serving willingly. Finally, she assumes that nurses need to be educated in both sciences and arts at the university level.
About the concepts, the theory major concepts related to the patient, nursing, health, and the environment, referred to as the met paradigm. Henderson argued that the work of a nurse is to help the individual, whether well or sick, in doing what backs up health or its wellness, or maybe a cool death, that the person would do unassisted if equipped with the necessary knowledge, strength, or will. Doing that is helping the individual acquire independence quickly. She described the patient as anyone in need of nursing care or rather an illness care. Health was not well defined was meant to display the balance of human life. Nursing was about the nurse adhering to 14duties that see the individual near independence. However, Henderson did not define the environment, but among the 14 elements, having a supportive environment was one of them.
The usefulness of Henderson’s theory and point of view about the work of nurses has greatly impacted the nursing education. The theory principles were published in major textbooks of nursing used since the 1930s until the 1960s, and up to the 21st century, the principles accompanied by the 14 activities are of great use in nursing care evaluation.
The Henderson’s 14 activities for assisting patient include: move and keep desirable positions, sleep and rest, excrete body waste, breath normally, protect the integument and keep the body well-groomed and clean, worship according to your believes, drink and eat properly, play and recreate, don’t injure others and keep away with dangers, cloth well, work to accomplish, express fears, needs, emotions or opinions while communicating, maintain normal range body temperature and finally be curious about health development and get satisfaction.
Henderson’s theory statements are not testable. However, they may be rearranged in questions that can be researched. Each of her 14 guidelines forms a research basis. Although she believed in clinical research, Henderson backed up nursing research. Earlier, much of the research focused on the nursing profession itself and educational processes, instead of practice and results of nursing, and she acted to change that. Furthermore, her theory is a research guide in relation to the needs of individuals.
Henderson’s work in its presentation is parsimonious, but in its scope, it is complex. The whole of nursing practice is covered by the 14 activities. However, Henderson’s view about the work of a nurse in the care of a patient that is the nurse should do all activities to the patient, which he performs alone up to when the patient independently do them once again, aids to the complexity of the theory scope.
Henderson’s theory has greatly enhanced nursing science, particularly in nursing education, since history (Alligood, 2017). Her contributions impacted nursing research internationally by confirming tried ways to help patients to regain health and strengthening nursing practice. Up to date, Henderson’s work is used as a framework by researchers globally. Researchers from different counties came up to make the Care Dependency Scale utilizing nursing care components by Henderson and found Henderson’s “need theory” helpful in making a model of patient valuation for a mobile nursing device.
Kolcaba’s comfort theory
One of the middle nursing theories is kolcaba’s theory of comfort. Katherine kolcaba was in 1944 in Cleveland, Ohio (Jacob, 2018). She graduated with a nursing diploma in 1965 from the school of nursing in St. Luke’s. Later in 1987, she graduated from Frances Payne Bolton nursing school at the University of Western Reserve. She later earned her nursing PhD in 1997 and got an authority certificate as a specialist in clinical nursing. Her education focused on comfort studies, nursing theory, instrumental development, gerontology, and nursing research.
Katherine kolcaba described comfort as the satisfaction of important human needs for ease, relief, or supremacy as a result of health care stressful situations (Puchi, Paravic & Salazar, 2018). She added that a client’s wants are as a result if a stimulus situation leading to negative anxiety. To increase comfort means to employ positive tensions and reduce negative ones. Comfort is seen as the result of the care that facilitates behaviors of health-seeking. Kolcaba developed propositions to enhance comfort theory.
The major concepts outlined in the comfort theory include comfort needs, comfort, intervening values, comfort measures, health-seeking behaviors, comfort care, comfort needs, and institutional integrity. The defined concepts are also linked with defined eight propositions.
Firstly, nurses, patients, and other members of the health care team concur on realistic and desirable healthy-looking reactions. Secondly, nurses make and relate interventions to talk on comfort needs. Thirdly, when nurses, patients, and families are pleased with the health care in a hospital, acknowledging the institution to the public helps it remain flourish and viable. Furthermore, healthcare team members and nurses look for patients and family comfort needs. Also, intervening variables when designing interventions are considered. When members of the family and patients are given care of comfort and indulge in health-seeking acts, they are more pleased with health care and health-related results better. Delivering interventions in an effective and caring manner enhances comfort. Lastly, nurses, patients, and family members mostly engage in health-seeking acts if the enhanced comfort is met, which further enhances comfort.
The theory of comfort shows that patients face needs of comfort in situations of stressful health care (Puchi, Paravic & Salazar, 2018). Some of the needs are noted by the nurse, who puts in place interventions to meet the requirements. Kolcaba noted that the theory of comfort could be incorporated into all age groups or healthy cares. Understanding the comfort theory and comfort itself enhances nursing care that includes social, environmental, psych spiritual, and physical interventions. It is outlined that any unhealthy, unwell, or unhappy patients can become more comfortable. Finally, results of comfort can be positive, holistic, nurse-sensitive, and measurable (Peterson & Bredow, 2019).
In conclusion, human wants theories of nursing were among the ancient theories of nursing. They followed the thought of philosophy of the period by rendering the individual a biopsychosocial being and concentrating on achieving the person’s needs. The theories are more focused on meeting the health needs of patients .the human needs-based chart is used to assist direct patient care by predicting patients’ needs and coming up with desirable results. Many nurses use these theories and models to offer care for the patients. Succeeding generations of theorists in nursing directed their theories and models on the earliest theories. Furthermore, the earliest theories were the backbone on which the succession of nursing depended since the last part of the 20th century until the 21st century (Roy, 2018).
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