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Pneumonia is an infection of the lung parenchyma. The ailment is a result of a viral, bacterial or fungal infection. Pneumonia is a fairly prevalent ailment posing to be a problem to most communities around the world. Rather than studying pneumonia as a disease per se, pneumonia is a general term for a classification of syndromes caused by various organisms leading to a range of manifestation and sequel. The possibility of inferring the pathological process from the history and examination of a patient is poor because several conditions such as asthma produce signs that overlap significantly with pneumonia. This paper attempts to examine the clinical signs, pathophysiological progression, diagnosis and the varied intervention applied to reduce the severity of the illness (Abdul and Sharma, 2018).
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Pneumonia may progress due to the presence of mucus in the lungs. The mucus contains antibiotics and antibacterial enzymes that aid in the destruction of bacteria. The excessive secretion of mucus results into a defective mucociliary clearance and impaired gaseous exchange enabling the colonization and exacerbation of bacteria. The hypersecretion of the mucus leads to an inflammation in the respiratory tract, and the excessively viscous sputum adheres to the air passages making breathing difficult.
The treatment of pneumonia entails preventing complications and curing the infection which depends on the age and the general health of the patient as well as the severity of pneumonia. According to the Infectious Disease of America (IDSA) guideline the disease should be treated using a broad spectrum of antibiotics. The process entails an evaluation of the early symptoms of pneumonia to enable the physician to settle for the desired regimen. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs is necessary for the clearance of microorganisms and prevention of systematic damage in the lungs (Dirou and Voiriot, 2015).
Pneumonia may lead to the fluctuation in electrolyte concentration as a result of indifference in the imbalance in intracellular and extracellular fluids. An abnormality in the electrolyte concentration occurs when there is a defect in the balance. Sodium balances fluids in the body and controls water distribution. The optimal laboratory values for sodium ranges from 135 to 145 meq/l. Sodium works with potassium to sustain the normal function of electrolytes. In this case, pneumonia has not fluctuated the sodium concentration in the patient’s body since the test results indicate a moderate concentration of 141 meq/l. There is also a balance in the blood chloride levels of the patients indicating 105 meq/l considering the normal chloride values range within 97 to 107 meq/l (Filis, Vasileiadis, and Koutsoukou, 2018).
Abnormal lab values noted are: Fasting Glucose 138mg/dL that can indicate diabetes, Lymphocytes =10% that may indicate the presence of mucormycosis in immune-compromised individuals, WBC= 15,200/mm that indicates infection, and PaO2 =59mm Hg that is a sign of hypoxemia. Also, pH =7.50, PaCO2= 25mm Hg , and HCO3= 29meq/L indicate alkalosis.
An observation in the chest x-ray scan shows an increase in whiteness that indicates consolidation of the left lung, which is a characteristic of a defect in the lungs of the patient. The right lung is more aerated which means that there is a concentration of inflammation on the left lung. The infection can be controlled using three treatments which include management of the immunomodulation inflammation which provides a guideline recommending a restraint from the occasional use of steroids. Secondly, supportive treatment is another form of therapy that restores functions and stability in the lung tissues and helps reduce further inflammation. Thirdly, antibiotic therapy is essential to enable personalization of a therapy scheme. The choice of the treatment plan is based on the efficacy of the antibiotic and its capacity to detect microorganisms with particular traits of resistance (Mantero et al., 2017).
The treatment of pneumonia may involve the use of intravenous immunoglobulins, corticosteroids, and macrolides. The intravenous immunoglobulins counteract the severity of pneumonia while the corticosteroids are prescribed to improve the immune response to the illness specifically in instances where the patient may have insufficient amounts of antibodies. The macrolides are prescribed to prevent excessive inflammation which would lead to the systematic damage of the organs (Mantero et al., 2017).
Abdul, S. B., & Sharma, S. (2018). Pneumonia, Bacterial.
Dirou, S., & Voiriot, G. (2015). Anti-inflammatory drugs and community-acquired pneumonia. doi:10.1016/j.rmr.2015.06.001
Filis, C., Vasileiadis, I., & Koutsoukou, A. (2018). Hyperchloraemia in sepsis. Annals of Intensive Care, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13613-018-0388-4
Mantero, M., Tarsia, P., Gramegna, A., Henchi, S., Vanoni, N., & Di Pasquale, M. (2017). Antibiotic therapy, supportive treatment, and management of immunomodulation-inflammation response in community-acquired pneumonia: a review of recommendations. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 12(1). doi:10.1186/s40248-017-0106-3