Modular Learning


Modular Learning
Analyze
Modular Learning Objectives
By the end of this module, the student shall be able to satisfy the following outcomes expectations:
• Case
o Analyze a problem situation implementing the Analyze Phase of DMAIC
In Module 3 you will continue to complete your Blackbelt project as you move into the Analyze Phase.
STEPS TO FOLLOW IN THE ANALYZE PHASE
1. Follow data collection plan from Measurement Phase
2. Determine best tools to use to analyze data
3. develop data analysis using appropriate tools: regression, ANOVA, Pareto Diagrams, etc.
4. Interpret Data, what does it mean? How does it help to determine the problem and the solutions?
5. Calculate Sigma and other relevant statistics
6. Validate Target Performance levels of the Process
7. Determine root causes: Five why’s, Fishbone, Brainstorming, other
8. Formulate initial possible solutions to the problem
9. Write Analyze Phase Report
Background
Required Reading
Module 3 is about the Analyze phase of the project. Some of the questions that need to be answered in this phase are:
• Current state analysis
• Is the current state as good as the process can do?
• Who will help make the changes?
• What resources will we need?
• What could cause this change effort to fail?
• What major obstacles do I face in completing this project?
A – Analyze Phase: Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects.
• Define Performance Objectives
• Identify Value/Non-Value Added Process Steps
• Identify Sources of Variation
• Determine Root Cause(s)
• Determine Vital Few x’s, Y=f(x) Relationship • Histogram
• Pareto Chart
• Time Series/Run Chart
• Scatter Plot
• Regression Analysis
• Cause and Effect/Fishbone Diagram
• 5 Whys
• Process Map Review and Analysis
• Statistical Analysis
• Hypothesis Testing (Continuous and Discrete)
• Non-Normal Data Analysis
iSix Sigma, Six Sigma DMAIC Reference
Analyze Phase
Deliverables Of Phase:
Data and process analysis, root cause analysis, quantifying the gap/opportunity.
Checkpoints For Completion:
Data and Process Analysis
• Identify gaps between current performance and the goal performance.
Root Cause Analysis
• Generate list of possible causes (sources of variation).
• Segment and stratify possible causes (sources of variation).
• Prioritize list of ‘vital few’ causes (key sources of variation).
• Verify and quantify the root causes of variation.
Quantifying the Gap/Opportunity
• Determine the performance gap.
• Display and communicate the gap/opportunity in financial terms.
Questions To Determine Appropriate Application:
Data and Process Analysis
• What does the data say about the performance of the business process?
• Did any value-added analysis or ‘lean thinking’ take place to identify some of the gaps shown on the ‘as is’ process map?
• Was a detailed process map created to amplify critical steps of the ‘as is’ business process?
• How was the map generated, verified, and validated?
• What did the team gain from developing a sub-process map?
• What were the crucial ‘moments of truth’ on the map?
• Were there any cycle time improvement opportunities identified from the process analysis?
• Were any designed experiments used to generate additional insight into the data analysis?
• Did any additional data need to be collected?
• What model would best explain the behavior of output variables in relation to input variables?
Root Cause Analysis
• What tools were used to generate the list of possible causes?
• Was a cause-and-effect diagram used to explore the different types of causes (or sources of variation)?
• What tools were used to narrow the list of possible causes?
• Were Pareto charts (or similar) used to portray the ‘heavy hitters’ (or key sources of variation)?
• What conclusions were drawn from the team’s data collection and analysis?
• How did the team reach these conclusions?
Quantifying the Gap/Opportunity
• What is the cost of poor quality as supported by the team’s analysis?
• Is the process severely broken such that a re-design is necessary?
• Would this project lend itself to a DFSS project?
• What are the revised rough order estimates of the financial savings/opportunity for the improvement project?
• Have the problem and goal statements been updated to reflect the additional knowledge gained from the analyze phase?
• Have any additional benefits been identified that will result from closing all or most of the gaps?
• What were the financial benefits resulting from any ‘ground fruit or low-hanging fruit’ (quick fixes)?
• What quality tools were used to get through the analyze phase?
From more information, visit https://www.isixsigma.com/
Module 3 – Case Assignment
Case Assignment
Submit an Analyze Definition Document which will demonstrate your ability to analyze a problem situation using the Analyze Phase of DMAIC. Continuation from the last paper READ THE REQUIRED READINGS IN BACKGROUND ABOVE – Become familiar with the outline and contents of the Analyze Phase.
FOLLOW THE STEPS OUTLINED IN BACKGROUND ABOVE
USE THE ANALYZE PHASE REPORT OUTLINE: listed above in the background reading.
Assignment Expectations
• Differentiate the various relevant aspects of the situation and analyze the problem at the Blackbelt level using various tools of the Analyze Phase.
• Organize the appropriate information into a coherent report.
o Use the Analyze Report Outline provided.
o Be sure to use Topic Headings that correspond to the major topics
• The report should contain all the necessary and sufficient aspects to completely analyze the problem.
o Include copies of various Tools that were used
o Provide Discussion and explanation where appropriate and necessary
o Include sources of documentation
o Include examples of reports used to generate evidence and data
The length of the paper should be 3-5 pages, or as long as necessary to include the all of the appropriate information.
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Please forward to current writer Team Charter ? Define Phase Project Charter Project Name Construction of Medical Hospital in the Ward Project Number DMS/SSH/2432/2017 Project Team State Medical Facilities Development Team Priority Level High Project Sponsor The State Government Start Date 12th August 5, 2016 Completion Date I5th December, 2017 Project Mission By decentralizing medical services from the state headquarters, we will be able to reach more constituents. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to make health services affordable to all; young, old, rich, poor, abled and for those with special needs. We will also reduce congestion at the state medical hospital thereby efficiency and quick service delivery to the citizens. Establishing the hospital in this ward will also create employment either directly or via businesses formed by the virtue of catering to the people who will be working at the hospital and those seeking treatment. Problem Statement For the past two years, there have been long queues at the state medical hospital outpatient department, congestion in the wards since the hospital has been admitting 16% more patients than it is supposed. This congestion has increased doctor patient ratio to 1:67, which is adversely affecting the service delivery by lowering the standards. Goal Statement To reduce congestion in our state hospital by at least 25% to regain the required medical facilities standards in the country and serve more people at the ward level. Objectives Establishing the medical facility is aimed at achieving the following objectives • To have accessible and quality medical services within reach for all regardless of who • Reduce the congestion at the state hospice by at least 25% • To reach the old and person with disability who would otherwise not find the services • To create direct and indirect employment at the local level and spur economic growth • To ensure equitable distribution of resources in the state Project Champion, Process Owner and Team A viable project is enticing on paper, but if wrongly or poorly implemented, it becomes a futile exercise (Santra, 2015). Therefore, visionary and passionate professionals and leaders will run the project (Kumar & Sharma, 2012). The process owner (Andy Weinstein) is the sponsor is the state government who instigated the project, funded it, contracted it out and will benefit from the project’s output by decongesting the state hospice. The project (Albert Brauck) champion shall be the project manager who will also be the operations team leader. The champion will coordinate the team to deliver the desired output. The team that shall run the show in this project will be, the ward representative as the chairperson; the public works chief as the vice-chairman. The state health director shall be the secretary; the state engineer will be the project manager, the youth leader as the treasurer, the women league leader as the spokesperson and project secretary. Members of the team shall be the ward medical services in-charge, the chief ward Kadhi, and the chair of the Christian leaders. This group will constitute representatives of all members of the society (Tennakoon & Palawatta, n.d). Professionals’ views will be heard through public participation and memoranda presented to the implementing committee. Resources The resources at the project’s exposure include the funds allocated to the construction of the hospital, which will help sub-contacting, procurement and paying wages. There are high profile machine and equipment that will make work easier. Hoists, cranes, lifts, tractors and mixers are a few equipment at the exposure of the project implementers. Consultants are also resources for the project. Organizational Support The success of every project depends on the level of appreciation from the various quotas in the organization and the society that the facility shall serve (Kurma & Sharma). This project has seen tremendous support from the government since it is the project sponsor, provided the project champion, and all the resources for the completion of the project. The medical services department has accorded the maximum support to the progress of the development by providing their audit team and their boardroom where the team conduct meetings for progress and deliberations. Project Plan and Milestones This social investment was conceived in August 2015, and the project proposal was presented to the state cabinet in October 2015. The council was convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that the project was viable and required fast tracking for the sake of citizen and residents of Kansas and the neighboring communities (Santra, 2015). The milestones for this project are; see the attached gnatt chart; The assurance we have from the project manager and the project secretary is that there will be uncompromised quality (Kumar & Sharma, 2012). The variation is favorable to the citizens and the government and is highly appreciated. Process Flow Chart SIPOC Diagram as the Process Map References Kumar, A. & Sharma, N. (2012). Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology: A Powerful Tool for Improving Business Operations. AMR, 488-489, 1147-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.488-489.1147 Santra, A. (2015). DMAIC Approach for Defect Predictability and Control. IJHIT, 8(10), 261 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijhit.2015.8.10.24 Tennakoon, B. & Palawatta, T. A Case Study on Application of DMAIC to Improve Delivery Efficiency. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2706992 Previous Papers DMAIC Define Phase (Paper 1) ? Define Phase Customer Requirements By decentralizing medical services from the state headquarters, we will be able to reach more constituents. We will make health services affordable to those who find it difficult to travel due to lack of transport fee by eliminating the same. We will also reduce congestion at the state medical hospital thereby efficiency and efficient service delivery to the citizens. Establishing the hospital in this ward will also create employment via businesses formed by the virtue of catering to the people who will be working at the hospital and those seeking treatment. Problem Statement For the past two years, there have been long queues at the state medical hospital outpatient department, congestion in the wards since the hospital has been admitting 16% more patients than it is supposed. This congestion has increased doctor patient ratio to 1:67 which is adversely affecting the service delivery by lowering the standards. Goal Statement To eliminate congestion in our state hospital by at least 25% to regain the required medical facilities standards in the country and serve more people at the ward level. Roles and Responsibilities A viable project is enticing on paper, but if wrongly or poorly implemented, it becomes a futile exercise (Santra, 2015). Therefore the project should be left in the hands of visionary and passionate professionals and leaders (Kumar & Sharma, 2012). The team that shall run the show in this project will be, the ward representative as the chairperson; the public works chief as the vice-chairman. The state health director shall be the secretary; the state engineer will be the project manager, the youth leader as the treasurer, the women league leader as the spokesperson and project secretary. Members of the team shall be the ward medical services in-charge, the chief ward Kadhi, and the chair of the Christian leaders. This group will constitute representatives of all members of the society (Tennakoon & Palawatta, n.d). Professionals’ views will be heard through public participation and memoranda presented to the implementing committee. Project Scope When a patient walks into the hospital premises is either discharged or admitted to the hospital ward. The treatment quality and the satisfaction the patient and his caretakers get from the services received at the hospital. Milestones This social investment was conceived in August 2015, and the project proposal was presented to the state cabinet in October 2015. The council was convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that the project was viable and required fast-tracking for the sake of citizen and residents of Kansas and the neighboring communities (Santra, 2015). The cabinet approved it and was slated to be funded by the 2016 supplementary budget. The tendering began immediately and awarded in mid-December 2015. The contract was awarded to the Strap Arts Constructors who did the design and submitted their project analysis to the state cabinet which got a green card, and the state governor led a ground-breaking ceremony at the end of the year 2015. The construction began on 12th January 2016. The project manager engages all interest groups in gathering their views to ensure the contractor delivers the best. Though there are critiques, the project is ahead of schedule. By June 2016, the construction was expected to be at 35%, but the certified complete work is at 37.5%. Therefore, from the look of things, the construction which was scheduled to start running by December 2017, it could begin running in August 2017. The assurance we have from the project manager and the project secretary is that there will be uncompromised quality (Kumar & Sharma, 2012). The variation is favorable to the citizens and the government and is highly appreciated. Communication Plan A project revolving a public utility is a social investment which should be communicated to the society it affects, including the whole world. In this regard, it is a hospital and is meant to provide medical services to all residents of the area. Therefore, the community should get to know about the new hospital coming up, the amount of public resources involved and the services it is looking forward to offering (Tennakoon & Palawatta, n.d). The project secretary shall prepare the meetings’ minutes and disseminate to all committee members within 12 hours after the meeting. She will also be tasked to put the progress of the development on social media platforms like Project website, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram after every three months. Professionals will be represented in all the meetings to ascertain the quality and the progress as they are the oversight agents of the development agenda. Every report will be gazette in the national daily and the government newspaper for all to access the information. Communication will be a way to tell the people the truth and the reality on the ground. References Kumar, A. & Sharma, N. (2012). Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology: A Powerful Tool for Improving Business Operations. AMR, 488-489, 1147-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.488-489.1147 Santra, A. (2015). DMAIC Approach for Defect Predictability and Control. IJHIT, 8(10), 261- 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijhit.2015.8.10.24 Tennakoon, B. & Palawatta, T. A Case Study on Application of DMAIC to Improve Delivery Efficiency. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2706992 DMAIC Measure Phase (Paper 2) Measurement Phase Possible project Y’s Using both practical and efficient ways, we were able to identify possible values of project Ys. We will be able to reduce congestion in the state hospital by at least 25%. We will improve service delivery by reducing the time taken from when a patient walks into the premises to when s/he is either discharged or admitted to the hospital wards. Data Type Being a medical facility project study, the data collected can only be qualitative as the number of patients to be treated there cannot be fully ascertained. The data we have is the data gathered from the state hospital regarding the number of patients treated there and the area of residence. After determining the number of patients from this ward, we realized that about 14% of the patients that seek medical help from the state hospital are from this locality, both inpatient, and outpatient. We also realized that the number of the citizens who are sick and could not afford transport to the state hospital were more than those have sought medical help at the state hospital. However, this number will be ascertained soon after the start of the new hospice’s operations. The subsequent research data will be quantitative and will give the clear picture of the workload that the state hospital will have been relieved by the ward hospice. The data will be precise, and the scientific results rallied to the public in due course (McCarty, 2005). Our officers will be assisting in collecting the data which we will analyze after, and communicate to all. In the data at hand, we got to know that majority of the patients treated at the state hospital in our ward were children below the age of twelve years, and about 57% were girls with various infections and severe malaria. 43% were boys with injuries on the hands due to falling, bone fractures and a few with malaria. About 34% were women between the age of eighteen to thirty-two seeking antenatal care and reproductive health consultancy. The rest were elderly and infants seeking comprehensive treatments. It was ascertained that out of all patients, only 6% were mature men between the ages of eighteen to sixty-four years. However, a majority of those visitors and seeking admission for their patients were men of the ages mentioned above. Catering shows that men are more affected by ailments than being infected and therefore the responsibility of being there physically and availing finances for treatment is born by men (Santra, 2015). Data Collection Techniques The viability of our hospital project will be fully realized after the operations begin. This is the time we shall have the right and fair data set of our project (Kurma & Sharma, 2012). We shall ensure that our clients who are the patients and those bringing them to hospital give us direct customer feedback through a small form that they will be filling after the treatment with the help of the attending nurse. We will also be timing the time spent between the time a patient is taken in for consultation and the time he leaves (Tennakoon & Palawatta, n.d). Talk time is quite an important role. The number of patients we receive over a period will also be rated with a view of rating the level and quality of services the clients receive. We will be making random calls to or customers to know how they are faring after receiving treatment from us. Besides calling our outpatient clients, we will be ascertaining the accuracy of the diagnosis from our inpatients. Both the calls and visits to the ward will help us rate the quality of our diagnosis equipment and the keenness of our medical practitioners. Data Collection Strategy On probability sampling, we shall use cluster sampling when dealing with a diagnosis sample. A simple random shall be employed when testing the age, gender and reasons for the visit to the facility. Non-probability test shall be done while doing convenience check on talk time. The random calls and ward visits will also give the judgment sample. Measurement Technique Continuous data shall be subjected to juxtaposing the tolerant level against the set standards 8% by the state. The percentage of the contribution shall also be tested against the requirement of 2% (McCarty, 2005). We shall also establish the various categories that are distinct from the rest. Discrete data will be rigorously tested for the accuracy, how recurrent problems are, and how repetitive the tasks are and reproduced. Process Capability Short term establishment of numerous errors correct the long term problems (Santra, 2015). Therefore, the errors we shall establish during the near future shall be corrected to save the long term effects. The data we shall collect, and the measurement system we shall use to analyze the data shall be the tools to help establish the tolerance, error of contribution and by the results obtained, we shall act accordingly. We shall invest in technology and controls in the long run where the clusters are higher, thereby lowering the standards set in the health services delivery. References Kumar, A. & Sharma, N. (2012). Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology: A Powerful Tool for Improving Business Operations. AMR, 488-489, 1147-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.488-489.1147 McCarty, T. (2005). The Six Sigma black belt handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. Santra, A. (2015). DMAIC Approach for Defect Predictability and Control. IJHIT, 8(10), 261- 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijhit.2015.8.10.24 Tennakoon, B. & Palawatta, T. A Case Study on Application of DMAIC to Improve Delivery Efficiency. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2706992
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